Construction World - April 2002 Issue
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Cover Story

“We have a budget of 500 cr. for the coming financial year marked for development activities.”

- Brijesh Kumar - CEO, Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority (GNIDA).

  What is the basis of planning for Greater Noida?

Greater Noida the 12,000-acre development is just 35 minutes from the national capital of Delhi is the result of the pioneering efforts of the state government of Uttar Pradesh to create an international standard infrastructure for an integrated township near Delhi. Backed by the Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority, which came into being in 1991, Greater Noida is fast emerging as the symbol of modern day town planning. The authority prepared the first master plan for development in 1992 for a population of 5 lakhs. The plan was then revised in accordance to the NCR plan for Surajpur- Kasna sub regional centers and was called the Outline Development Plan 2001. The plan envisaged a balanced and harmonious development of the region, creation of appropriate rural – urban balance through well-conceived 4-tier hierarchy of settlements and controlled and restricted development within Delhi and Delhi metropolitan area. The plan also aimed to provide excellent infrastructure facilities and fast modes of transport and communication to regional and sub regional centers. The authority firmly believes and works on the principle that infrastructure must precede development. Thus a well-planned infrastructure has been laid out keeping in mind the requirements of an integrated township and future requirements so that supply will always exceed demand.

What are the infrastructural opportunities available in Greater Noida?

Out of the total area of 40,000 hectares, 25% area is earmarked for residential colonies, 25% of the total area has been reserved for green area, 19% for the industrial sector and 6% for commercial land. The township, which is a part of the national capital region, has been, planned in such a manner that supply of the support services and infrastructure will always exceed demand at all stages of development. The perception that Greater Noida is far away will be taken care of when the various routes of connectivity are further strengthened. A six-lane expressway with Noida is scheduled to be completed by September 2002 directly to Delhi thereby reducing travel time to 20 minutes. In the near future Greater Noida will be connected with Sarita Vihar, Nizamuddin and National Highway-24, and the public transportation will be made easily available. A six-lane expressway is under construction and will connect the township directly to Delhi reducing travel time to 20 minutes. Greater Noida is the only city in north India with privatised power distribution, which thus ensures efficient and uninterrupted power supply and is the key to the success achieved by the township. Telephone lines have been connected to the national telephone network through optic fibre cable and accessed through direct dial from Delhi and new connections are easily available on demand. Underground electric cabling & sewerage and an extensive network of wide roads add to the convenience. The Howrah-Delhi railway link passes through the area and a new railway station and a rail link will connect Greater Noida with the eastern and western mainlines. An international airport and an aviation hub has been planned at Greater Noida, which will put GNIDA on the aviation map to facilitate tourism, cargo, aviation and non-aviation facilities.

What is the amount of expenditure planned?

We have a budget of 500 cr. for the coming financial year marked for development activities. Since 1991 till date, 1011 cr. have been spent on land acquisition and setting up of infrastructure.

What are the new projects coming up?

GNIDA is proposing to set up an Electronic Public Library with an, industrial information centre, and an integrated sports complex. About 25 acres of land has already been identified for this purpose. In this computer age, GNIDA will be the first one to offer an electronic public library to its residents. The Industrial Information Centre would provide latest updated information on Industries and will essentially cater to the existing & prospective industrial units located in Greater Noida. Greater Noida Sports & the Cultural foundation is being set up to promote, support and encourage competitive as well as adventure sports and cultural activities in Greater Noida. With an aim to be ‘the preferred destination to reside’ GNIDA has earmarked eight hectares of land to set up ‘Kala Dham’, to set up institutions for performing arts.

Who are the new upcoming corporates investing in properties in Greater Noida?

Ecotech is the exclusive eco- friendly industrial area, where 8 polluting industries are prohibited from setting up business. For those industries, which have been allowed in, the authority ensures speedy clearances, approvals and also incentives to promote early commissioning of projects. Ecotech, the prime industrial complex has attracted investments worth Rs. 11,000 cr. from well-known corporate houses like LG Electronics, Daewoo Motors, Moser Baer, New Holland Tractors and Hindustan Times Press among many others as their preferred industrial destination.

An institutional area spread over 570 acres called “Knowledge Park” will exclusively house educational, training, research institutions and recreational, social and cultural organizations catering to the needs of local residents. Till date there have been more than 150 institutional allotments to educational institutes, hospitals and socio-cultural center management institutes and vocational training institutes. Reputed schools like DPS and Somerville and institutes like Apeejay and Ishan are already functional. There are two ITI’s running in Greater Noida with the assistance of the authority to provide technical education to the youth, which helps them to get employment in the industries of the area. A “ Trade Mart” is being developed by the Export promotion Council (EPC) for handicrafts to facilitate handicraft export and exposition.

What are the other special features it has to offer?

For recreation and leisure activities an 18-hole PGA standard golf course designed by ace golfer Greg Norman has been developed and has become operational. An integrated sports complex is also being developed. Stellar Gymkhana Club has also started construction for a 25 acre socio- culture center. Greater Noida has allotted 25,000 residential plots under different schemes in various residential sectors. Private builders are also developing projects in the area. Housing options depending on individual needs of different people are available through various schemes from time to time. A single table clearance system has been set up to ensure project clearance within a month.

Commercial complexes and neighborhood shopping centres have been set up at sector levels. Kiosks, plots for shops & commercial plazas and built up shops are being provided for the convenience of the residents. A 100-acre area has been earmarked to set up state-of-the-art Biotech Park at Greater Noida. Facilities like cold storage, animal houses, technology incubator, are proposed to be set up. The park will primarily promote projects in the areas of health care, industrial biotechnology, and agricultural biotechnology – both in the fields of manufacturing as well as research. Greater Noida has adopted a unique “Cluster approach” for promoting medium and small-scale industries, wherein an exclusive toy city with over 100 toy manufacturers have been allotted land. The proposed toy city will be spread over an area of 125 acres which will house an R & D centre for toys, a state-of-the-art quality control centre, toy library and training centres for people working in the Toy City. A Mahilla Udyami Park has been set up, exclusively for women entrepreneurs. It is the first integrated women’s industrial park in North India. This includes earmarking an area for women entrepreneurs and providing them with infrastructunal facilities like water supply, drainage, etc.

Any plans to have an SEZ in Noida?

The Ministry of Commerce has approved a Special Economic Zone for Greater Noida. 1, 000 hectares of land has been earmarked for this purpose- making GNIDA a privileged destination for EOU’s. An Export Promotion Park, an exclusive 20 acres is already in place for Export Oriented Units with both flatted and plotted development available for setting up business. How do you see Greater Noida ten years hence? Greater Noida will be one of the few well-planned townships where much importance has been given to the maintenance as well as to the creation of infrastructure. It definitely will have an advantage of being based on modern planning philosophy with stress laid for private sector involvement. Not only does it hold the promise for a safe investment but is also ideal for a peaceful life, surrounded as it is by a green natural landscape. With great connectivity and the excellent infrastructure that it offers, Greater Noida will definitely be the city of the future.

India’s emerging cities

A number of towns around metros are witnessing all round development in India. Vasudevan Nagarajan is euphoric that the stage is set for the mushrooming of smaller cities in the coming years, thanks to a plethora of fiscal incentives and major policy changes.

The post liberalisation era has opened up opportunities for suburbs and towns adjoining four metros and well connected by road, air and rail traffic. The infrastructure development in Navi Mumbai has convinced corporates to move away from CBD areas in search of large areas at affordable prices. The all-round development in Gurgaon too has pushed sectors like IT eyeing large areas to move away from the din and bustle of New Delhi. In a related development, a number of towns around metros and also well connected by transport network are witnessing all round development in South India. It is not just areas adjoining Southern metros but smaller pockets as well, which saw huge potential engulfing the area. Availability of better transport network, telecommunication facilities and expressways has made it possible to reduce commuting time and ease metro congestion. The stage is now set for mushrooming of smaller cities in the coming years, thanks to a plethora of fiscal incentives and major policy measures initiated by the federal government.

In a major related development, the government has recently permitted foreign direct investment (FDI) upto 100 per cent for development of integrated townships, including housing, commercial premises, hotels, resorts, city and regional level urban infrastructure facilities such as roads and bridges, mass rapid transit systems and manufacture of building materials. Development of land and providing allied infrastructure will form an integral part of township’s development. It is said that the implementation process may take more time but all this will prompt the proliferation of smaller cities looking for opportunities for growth. A perceptible difference is that unlike Navi Mumbai and Gurgaon there are more suburbs and towns across South India and located away from the metros. These areas have witnessed tremendous development and set for a further growth in the changing economic scenario.

On the flip side to the FDI in township projects is the threshold limit prescribed at 100 acres and 2000 dwelling units, which appears a tall order, according to experts who have been monitoring the clearance of FDI in real estate for a long time. The mood is one of optimism considering that the policy has been hanging fire for a long time now. However, the current regulations will preclude FDI in areas other than the metros. In the process, a vital factor lost sight of , is the development opportunities in medium-sized cities with strong local economies prompted by the strength of agriculture. There is every need to have a re-look at policy levels to plug the loopholes and ensure that the government means business.

Andhra Pradesh

Here, infrastructure is being focused on, in the growth corridors of Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakha-patnam, Nellore and Anantapur. The real estate values have already started climbing up in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. So far there was no speculative activity as witnessed in other cities and so values remained insulated to the vagaries of price fluctuations. If the pace of all-round development in secondary cities like Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Nellore and Anantapur is any indication then it is attributed to the emphasis laid on construction and infrastructure. The implementation of multi-modal transport system, development of ports along the long coastline with the private sector participation, proposed international airport at Shamshabad would all percolate and trigger development in secondary cities.

The second phase of Hitec city in Madhapur adjoining Hyderabad is getting ready with the construction of 8.66 lakh sq ft office area. Among the specifications offered in phase 2 include column free large floor plates averaging 18,000 sq ft, centralised air-conditioning, unlimited availability of bandwidth, power, etc. Rentals for office are quoted at Rs 35 per sq ft per month and may go up to Rs 39 per sq ft per month during the later part of the year.

In Visakhapatnam, the coastal belt area is riveting the attention of homebuyers. Areas undergoing development include Murali colony, MVP colony, Seethamma Dhara and Dasapalla hills. In all, 20 builders are catering to residential properties ranging from Rs 6 to Rs 20 lakh.


The thrust on infrastructure in Karnataka is by far the highest among all states at Rs 73,937 crore. A mega city project for the development of Bangalore is under way with an investment tag of Rs 805 crore. A world-class technology park is coming up at Whitefield, a sprawling suburb. The Bangalore-Mysore expressway being built at a cost of Rs 640 crore will give a virtual boost to the tourist-ridden parts of Mysore. It will become a satellite city paving way for the proliferation of industrial townships along the expressway. The state government is in the process of acquiring land for laying a four-lane highway between Bangalore and Mysore. Once ready, the commuting time will be halved. Due to its proximity to Bangalore, availability of skilled manpower and pragmatic approach by the state government, the stage is set for a turnaround in Mysore emerging as a vibrant secondary city.

The development in Mangalore and expansion plans of existing units has given a virtual boost to nearby towns as well. Udupi is an instance where residential property prices jumped by 30-35 per cent. Land is scarce and prices are skyrocketing in Manipal, home to several professional colleges. Other growth centres planned include Hubli, Hasan, Raichur, etc. Besides infrastructure, airstrips are coming up at Hubli, Gulbarga and Mysore which will lead to better transport network.


The Kerala government has identified the IT sector as the thrust area for the new millennium. The Technopark in Thiruvananthapuram is home to over 50 corporates from across the world employing 5000 professionals. The 180-acre sprawling campus is all set to continue its exponential growth in the years ahead. The thrust on IT has led to the development of secondary cities in the state.

A hi-tech park is coming up at Kalamassery in Ernakulam district with the objective of creating a superior environment for the development of biotechnology, IT, and other hi-tech industries.

The state government is planning a series of steps to make Kochi the next IT destination. The international airport at Kochi built at a cost of Rs 310 crore is all set to get a boost with the landing of the international airlines. The LNG terminal project with an investment tag of Rs 2,000 – Rs 3,000 crore will bring in LNG from Gulf countries through pipelines for the downstream user industries. Once implemented, it will pave the way for new industries to come up in Kochi. A power project promoted by a consortium of oil companies will be commissioned by the year 2004.

The six-lane super highway connecting international airport and Irumbenam will be extended to national highway via Kakkanad. Yet another area set for development is Kasargod where a chemical project for Rs 7,000 crore has recently been cleared by the government. Besides, projects ranging from radial tyre manufacturing to road building are also in the pipeline.

The Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA)’s perspective plan will cover the entire region of 731 sq. km. It will function as a catalyst for major transport corridors and land use. With the shift in emphasis to infrastructure mainly to road development, GCDA in association with the corporation is developing major roads like Kaloor-Kadavanthara road, Sahodara-Nagappan road, Bund road, Pullupadi-Thammanan road, etc. In all, 30 town-planning schemes have been identified, 22 schemes already sanctioned and in various stages of implementation. Seven of them have already been completed.

Areas undergoing real estate development adjoining Kochi are Kakanad, Edapally and Vytilla. Affordable prices and availability of huge tracts of land are some of the factors that lure investors at present. In Kochi, the slump in real estate experienced earlier has virtually pushed players with no long-term commitment to the sector. The number of builders too has considerably dipped with only 10 players active in the market. As a result, only a few new projects have been launched recently. While demand for built units continues in areas like Kadavanthara and Kalamassery, capital values continue to remain stable and unlikely to move northward in the next six months.

As an important cultural and commercial centre of Kerala, Thrissur is all set for a spurt in skyscrapers. Land availability at central locations is becoming scarce and expensive and vertical structure is the only option left to planners. Known for the famous Pooram festival, the vibrant trading centre is home to a number of engineering, medical, veterinary and agricultural colleges.

Tamil Nadu,

Chennai, the capital city can expand in three directions with a consistent demand for housing from end users. The Corporation of Chennai’s efforts to ease the city congestion has met with partial success even after construction of mini flyovers and traffic diversion at several points. The city’s suburbs are bristling with activity thanks to better transport network and infrastructure. Once a tiny suburb, Velachery is the focus of development as property developers with land prices skyrocketing in and around the area. Proximity to Tidel Park, which offers world-class facilities at one million sq ft, airport and city’s arterial roads, has virtually made this suburb buzz with activity.

The old Mahabalipuram road has become a cyber corridor with software majors like TCS, Pentafour, Polaris, Maars and a few others having their campus facilities. Land prices have shot up by 200 per cent in a span of three years as a result of entry of IT players in the area. The state-government promoted Elcot is coming out with a cyber city on 2,000 acres at Siruseri. The 113-km East Coast road (ECR) stretch from Sholinganallur junction to the union territory of Pondicherry on the coastal line is now ready and opens new vistas for property developers. A number of amusement centres are dotting the skyline. The Tamil Nadu Road Development Company (TNRDC) is keen to see that Rs 60 crore road widening project remains a model carriageway not only in Tamil Nadu but also for the whole country. Additional facilities on the lines of Mumbai-Pune expressway are being provided like highway patrolling, helpline, ambulance and vehicle breakdown assistance. Realtors say that land prices in the area have already doubled in the last six months.

The government’s recent move to allow 100 per cent FDI in integrated townships has convinced a few Chennai property developers owning vast tracts of land to promote projects in suburbs where demand continues to grow for budget apartments. While others are weighing the implications of FDI in township projects, dissemination of information and a single window clearance would pave the way for new entrants.

Yet another upcoming city is Coimbatore which has seen a perceptible change from a farming and textile community into software and auto-components centre. With a population of 1.2 million, three universities, 18 engineering colleges, over 65 arts and science colleges and several polytechnics, the city can boast of availability of skilled manpower and infrastructure. The CII has taken initiative to prepare an ambitious IT perspective plan for Coimbatore as it is confident of the city becoming the next hub of IT activity in Tamil Nadu.

Over 20 housing finance companies operating in Coimbatore have reported a robust growth rate of 30 per cent. The success of over 100 IT companies has focused the attention of global IT majors to set up shops in Coimbatore. Major construction activity is visible in areas like Vadavalli, Kovai-Pudur, Peelamedu, Kaundampalayam and Trichy road.

Yet another town fast emerging as a secondary city is Tiruchy which boasts of more than 27 engineering colleges in and around the area. Time was when Parsn, a leading developer from Chennai introduced the apartment concept to reluctant buyers with no alternative in sight. Today there are 27 builders catering to varied housing requirements. A number of NRIs in the US IT industry are hailing from Tiruchy, thanks to the network of educational institutions churning out skilled manpower. According to property developers, there has been a price appreciation of 20 per cent for apartments every year. However, land cost has stagnated in the past five years. Areas undergoing real estate development include Srirangam, Tiruvanaikaval and Cantonment area. Independent homes are dotting the skyline of suburbs. The continual development of suburbs and towns across South India is a clear indication of the growing potential engulfing the region. With the thrust given for 100 per cent FDI in township projects, the chances for the emergence of secondary cities appear bright. It is only a matter of time before suburbs and towns will transform into growth-oriented cities to compete and offer the best facilities in order to lure the corporates and MNCs to their fold.

 “Navi Mumbai is growing at the fastest rate in the country - 10% a year.”

- Anil Kumar Lakhina - Vice Chairman & MD, CIDCO (City & Industrial Development Corp. of Maharashtra Ltd.)

  Why is Navi Mumbai an alternative city?

Cities grow naturally anywhere. If we look at the history of city making, then we note that it is always centered around water and on markets. In fact, water and access is more important than even the markets. This new city has every thing. In fact it has close proximity to Mumbai through sea, road and rail. It has more living space than Mumbai does.

What are the infrastructural opportunities available in Navi Mumbai?

When you say that persons should be comfortable in cities basically it means they should be getting the elements of nature. Getting access, getting connectivity, interaction, what in other words is known as a good neighbourhood. People don’t want to walk.

Any new city means that people don’t want to walk distances to go to their school or their place of work. The new cities have to recognise that concept. Then there are other factors also. The Nhava Sheva port has helped in connecting not only Mumbai but also the rest of the country. Then there are good employment opportunities. Mumbai is a choked city, but Navi Mumbai is a satellite city with lot of space. Navi Mumbai has approximately 245 sq km of which 60%, 200 sq km is open to sky. Which means nothing can be done on that area; it could be gardens, parks, no development zones, and even roads and parks or whatever. So that is not to be touched. Out of the remaining 40% of the area, about 10% is devoted to schools, colleges, and orphanages, social responsibilities that are important. The remaining 30% of the area has been devoted for railways, roadways, port, SEZ, etc. Take a look at south Mumbai, everything is centered on from Churchgate to VT, this small area has created areas or reason for areas upto Borivili. Navi Mumbai is extended up to Ambernath and Vapi. This helps raw materials; intermediate goods, which can be moved around without any hindrances. Even the roads are wider in the new city. It has the longest bridge connecting the city of Mumbai. In short, it has everything a bit better than Mumbai.

What about the amount of expenditure?

First let me tell you that the city stretches up to 245 Lands in Navi Mumbai are expensive. Because there is not a single parcel of land in any corner of Navi Mumbai that is less than a cr. of rupees per hectre. But that is how cities are done. The cost of making the railways alone stood at Rs. 1000 cr. And another 1,000 cr. to complete that job. Building of roads, gardens, parks, etc. itself costed around 5-6,000 cr. On technology, infrastructure project management consultants, the amount spend was around 4-5,000 cr. The airport and SEZ projects costed around 10-15,000 cr.

What has Navi Mumbai achieved?

Navi Mumbai has achieved an enormous number of things. First is a confidence that it is a large city. It is a sign of great development and great progress. It is like a brand new city on this planet. Navi Mumbai is head and shoulders above Kalyan, Dombivili, Kandivili, Borivili and Goregaon. The roads that we have constructed and reconstructed and we keep repairing them are far better than that in Mumbai. I’ll give you an example of a footpath. I judge the city by the footpath it keeps. Mumbai has footpaths all over. What is this footpath, we can’t even walk on it. In Navi Mumbai it is the other way round. Newer cities, like the city of Khargar, we have taken this factor into account. Speed is our norm here, the footpaths here have been built in such a way that an individual can walk straight without tumbling over the street furniture. Then, wherever people have the tendency to cross the road, the place has been barricaded, so that they go to a place from where they should cross.

What benefits do new cities enjoy?

Cities are highly subsidised areas. It is common knowledge that villages are subsidised, but I believe even cities are subsidised. The reason is simple to understand. All good educational centres would be set-up in the cities, then there would be hospitals, water, power, the concentration would be absolute. When we talk of subsidies, it is but natural that education, water, transport in cities are subsidised. If the quantum of subsidy is put together in comparison to villages, the surprising factor would be that cities have an upper hand over villages. Even the amount of investment that goes into making of cities is quite substantial against the total kitty of money.

How would the future shape up?

Navi Mumbai is growing at the fastest rate in the country- 10% a year. The population is growing at 10-12% per year. No city in the country is growing at that pace. 90% of the housing sectors are occupied. Navi Mumbai is growing, and definitely at a faster rate.



The brick-ash relation

  Effective utilisation of flyash generated by coal based thermal power stations has been a major area of concentration for the scientists and engineers. Large quantities of flyash produced as a by-product of coal-based power have been viewed as a serious environmental problem. JAGVIR GOYAL says that in order to meet with the ever-rising power-demand, and setting up of thermal power stations to meet it, it becomes essential to convert their residue i.e. flyash into a resource. Then the effective utilisation of flyash would gain importance.

  A lot of research on the subject of flyash utilisation has been made by various scientific organizations. Three major uses suggested have been, the use of flyash in production of cement, bricks and in the rising of embankments. The actual utilisation, however, is yet to be listed. It is a common experience that while shaping a theory into practice, a number of variations are noted on the ground due to changes in properties of local materials, atmospheric conditions, prevailing working conditions and the type of machinery used. A countdown of that happening in actual and its comparison with the theory brings out many such factors that need reconsideration for better achievement of purpose in the future.

Use of Flyash in Bricks:

Bricks are the most common building material used by man since ancient times.The ever-rising demand for dwelling units is directly resulting into an increase in demand of bricks. Use of flyash in bricks can therefore dilute the problem of disposal of this hazardous material to a large extent. In addition, the depletion of fertile crest of earth, now underway to fulfill the demand of clay for manufacture of bricks, can also be slowed down. Flyash can be used in combination with clay or with lime and sand to produce clay-flyash bricks and flyash-sand-lime bricks respectively.


Clay-flyash bricks:

IS13757-1993 lays down the specification for burnt clay-flyash building bricks. This standard has been prepared on similar lines to IS1077-1992, the standard for common burnt clay building bricks, keeping in view the same end use. The standard prescribes the dimensions and tolerances in them; classification based on average compressive strength of bricks, physical requirements and certain guidelines on general quality of bricks. The quantum of clay and that of flyash has been suggested to be in optimum proportions to produce uniformly burnt and crack-free bricks. Both hand moulding and machine moulding have been allowed in IS 13757.


Gazette Notification:

The final notification (no. 563) on flyash, bottom ash and pond ash has been issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India on September 14, 1999 with the objective to conserve topsoil, prevent dumping of flyash and to make an effective and time-bound utilisation. The notification lays down that no person, within a radius of 50 km from a coal or lignite based thermal plant, shall manufacture clay bricks or tiles or blocks for use in construction activities without using at least 25% of ash (flyash, bottom ash or pond ash) with soil on weight-to-weight basis. With about 60 thermal power stations producing more than 80 million tones of flyash every year, the notification may result in substantial utilisation of flyash. Its full implementation however is yet to be seen.


Actual Production of Clay flyash bricks:

Production of clay-flyash bricks has been taken up by setting up a brick kiln at Lira Cohabit, district Bastinado of Punjab state with an objective to produce 2 cr. such bricks of first-class quality. The kiln has produced more than 1.8 cr. such bricks of which 1.7 cr. stand consumed by now. Actual production and use of clay flyash bricks has brought forth many such points, which, if considered, dwelt upon and solved, may help in considerable use of flyash in the manufacture of bricks in future.

Using the kiln set up at Lira Cohabit as an example, we can catch a glimpse of the manufacturing process of clay flyash bricks.


a)Manufacturing process:

The kiln set up at Lira Cohabit, is a normal, continuous type bull’s kiln that bakes the bricks at 1020 degree Centigrade. It has a capacity of producing 8 lakh bricks per month. The quantity of flyash mixed with soil is 30% by volume. A further increase in quantity of flyash tends to make the bricks brittle which gets broken at the edges during transportation. Thus, it is not desirable to increase the percentage of flyash.On weight-to-weight basis, this works out as 18% only. The bricks are manufactured by extrusion process. Under this process, the bricks are machine moulded by installing brick-machines at the kiln site. The clay is weathered in open bins before sending it along with flyash to primary mixers where the two ingredients are well mixed before transporting them to a pug mill by means of a conveyer belt.In the pug mill, required quantity of water is added to the mix.The pug mill kneads the mix well, and sends it to the extruder,which pushes it into the mould to get the shape of a running column. The column further runs across the cutting table where wire-cutters are used manually to cut it into bricks of the required size. The moulded bricks are then shifted to trays made for the purpose and transported to the sheds for drying.Further process is similar as followed in a conventional brick-kiln.A normal time cycle of 48 days has been observed.The figure shows various activities involved. However, the activities of weathering of clay, preparation of mix, machines and drying of bricks run parallel to the activity of baking of bricks.On the whole, a net period of 30 days is required to avail full capacity of the kiln.

Thus a kiln having a capacity of 9—10 lakh bricks will produce about 8 lakh first-class bricks per month.


b)Soil and flyash characteristics:

The soil used at Lira Cohabit kiln has a clay content varying from 15-20 %. In conventional bricks, clay content of 20—35 % is recommended. Thus the clay content of soil used is quite low, especially when flyash is to be mixed with it. Site experiments reveal that it is not possible to have more than 30 % of flyash by volume in the soil—clay mix if proper strength and bond are to be achieved. A proportion of 70:30 of soil and flyash by volume gives a cohesive mix that can be machine moulded into bricks of required shape and size.


c)Other features:

Some of the other features of this clay and fly-ash brick kiln are -


1. Cost of setting up of the kiln having a capacity of 8 lakh bricks per month, which includes the cost of machinery, but excludes the cost of the land, which is Rs. 52 lakh.


2. Total power requirements of the kiln work out to be 82 KW.


3. The cost of conventional bricks varies from place to place, the variation ranging from Rs. 1,200 to Rs. 2,200 per 1000 bricks. In backward regions, conventional clay bricks of first-class quality cost Rs. 1,300 per 1000 bricks.In comparison, the cost of clay and flyash bricks works out at Rs. 1,475 per 1000 bricks. After taking into account the extra labour cost, power consumption, depreciation of machinery and interest charges on capital, the investment is higher by Rs. 175 per 1000 bricks only. This difference will however vary from place to place.


d)Provision of frog:

Conventional clay bricks carry a frog of size 100 mm X 40 mm with the depth varying from 10 mm to 20 mm. Bricks produced by extrusion process do not carry a frog. The manufacturing process is such that, it is not possible to provide frog in the bricks.IS 13757-1993 also exempts the bricks produced by extrusion process of having a frog? As the clay and flyash bricks are being manufactured at Lira Cohabit by the extrusion process, these do not carry a frog.


e)Mixing of clay and flyash:

It has been noted that hand mixing, hand-machines of clay-flyash bricks is not possible. However, machine mixing, hand-machines is possible in these bricks.Trial testing of machine-mixed, hand moulded bricks done at kiln site shows that the compressive strength test results of machine-mixed, hand -moulded bricks are quite low as compared to those of machine-moulded bricks. Table 1 shows a comparison of test results of these bricks.


f)Test results of clay-flyash bricks:

Clay-flyash bricks, when tested for various physical requirements laid in IS 13757-1993, give satisfactory results. These bricks need to be tested for compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence. Actual results received on testing of these bricks are exhibited in Table 2. It can be observed that compressive strength of these bricks is very high compared to the minimum strength requirement of 105 kg/ prescribed for conventional bricks. The water absorption and efflorescence results are also better. It has been observed that buildings built with clay-flyash bricks show lesser signs of dampness in comparison to those built using conventional bricks, because of low porosity of these bricks. A comparison of machine-mixed, machine-moulded bricks with and without the use of flyash shows that average compressive strength of clay and flyash bricks is 300-kg/ sqcm while that of bricks without flyash was 190 kg/sqcm. This shows that the addition of flyash to soil has a positive effect on the strength of the bricks.


g)Fuel saving:

A saving in fuel consumption has been noted while manufacturing clay-flyash bricks. 11 to 12 tons of coals are required for the production of one lakh clay-flyash bricks, being 3 to 4 tons lesser than the normal corresponding consumption of coal.This saving occurs due to presence of unborn carbon in flyash. The quality and calorific value of coal also affect its consumption.


h)Flyash utilisation:More than 12,000 cubic meter of flyash has been consumed in the manufacture of bricks at Lehra Mohabat kiln site.A significant percentage can be achieved if the gazette notification is followed, and all the kilns within a 50 km radius of every thermal plant begins to use flyash in the manufacture of bricks.


i)Overall performance of clay flyash bricks:

Keeping in view the above observations, made on the basis of the example used, the following conclusions on the performance of clay-flyash bricks can be made:

1.Clay-flyash bricks have high compressive strength, low water absorption and no efflorescence, and fulfill all the physical requirements prescribed in IS 13757-1993.


2. The cost of manufacture of clay-flyash bricks is higher by about Rs. 175/- per 1000 bricks than that of conventional bricks. 3. The soil-flyash proportion depends upon the clay content of the soil. The bricks turn brittle and break at corners if high percentage of flyash is mixed with soil having low clay content.


4. Initial investment on machinery and setting up of a kiln for clay-flyash bricks is higher than that for a kiln for conventional clay bricks.


5. For clay-flyash brick-kiln, a power connection of about 82 KW is required, while no such connection is required for conventional brick kiln.


6. Hand mixing is not feasible in the case of clay-flyash bricks, as proper blending of the soil and flyash does not take place.


7. Machine mixed, and machine-moulded bricks have better strength than machine-mixed, and hand-moulded bricks.


8. Machine-mixed, machine-moulded clay-flyash bricks have better strength than machine-mixed, machine-moulded clay bricks, showing that flyash contributes to the strength of the bricks.


9. Clay-flyash brick buildings show lesser signs of dampness as compared to conventional brick buildings, because of low porosity of clay flyash bricks.


10. A saving in fuel is observed when flyash is used in bricks.


11.A saving in soil equivalent to the quantity of flyash consumed is there in case of clay- flyash bricks.


In view of these observations, the steps required to promote the production and use of clay flyash bricks can be outlined.


Steps to promote clay-flyash bricks:

i)Incentives to be given to brick kiln owners:

A few benefits are already available to the brick kiln owners choosing to produce clay flyash bricks. These include- sales tax exemption, excise duty exemption on ash-based products, and category incentives by the industry department such as 30 % subsidy on building and fixed machinery. In addition, there are savings in fuel and clay.

Yet, the brick manufacturers are reluctant to switch over to clay-flyash bricks. The following incentives need to be given further to the brick kiln owners to promote clay flyash bricks:

1.Lower interest loans to meet with the higher initial investments. The machinery purchased by the manufacturer can be hypothecated to the government against the loan.

2. Easy availability of flyash to the kiln owners from the thermal plants. In the initial years, the thermal plants at all kiln sites falling within a 50 km radius should provide cost-free flyash.

3.Power connection to brick manufacturers should be based on priority basis.4.Kilns producing clay-flyash bricks should be declared as seasonal industry. On average basis, kilns remain closed for 4 months in a year due to the rains or extreme weather. During these months, they have to deposit the minimum electricity charges to the SEBs. If declared as seasonal industry, they will be exempted from depositing these charges.

5.Industry department should maintain a separate list of these kilns for A-category incentives. Now, coupled with other industries, it takes a long time to pay the subsidy to brick manufacturers.


ii) Steps to be taken by Pads and SEBs:

1. Items of brickwork in clay-flyash bricks should be added to the common schedule of rates. A higher rate in comparison to that for brickwork with conventional bricks should be allowed to accommodate higher cost of clay- flyash bricks after making a fresh analysis.

2. The work-specifications and tender documents should be revised to include the items with clay-flyash bricks. Government should declare the use of clay- flyash bricks compulsory in all public works.

3. State Electricity Boards should pass a regulation to give power connection to clay-flyash brick manufacturers on priority basis.

4.Thermal plant authorities should supply flyash free of cost to kiln sites within a 50 km radius. This will help them to dispose flyash as well as in meeting with the environment-protection regulations.


iii) Amend Gazette Notification no.563: The Gazette notification of September 14, 1999 needs to be amended to the effect that, the percentage of ash to be used in bricks can be reduced, if the local soil does not contain sufficient percentage of clay in it. The authority under Para 1(2) of the notification should be empowered to decide the percentage of ash to be used in the local soil for production of best quality bricks.



Based on actual experience in production of clay flyash bricks, it is concluded that steps elaborated above, if taken, will help brick manufacturers in shedding unfounded fears and adopt the use of flyash in bricks, thus contributing towards the utilisation of flyash and thus help reduce an environmental impact. These steps would also help in reduction in cost of production of clay-flyash bricks, further helping the consumer to switch over to clay-flyash bricks, as he will get machine-moulded and stronger bricks at a cost comparable to that of the conventional bricks.


Sr. Physical property Test results of bricks

   (Table 1)

  Machine-mixed,Hand-moulded  Machine-mixed,machine-moulded

1 Compressive strength 125 kg/esq. 270 kg/

2 Water absorption 15 %11 % 

3 Efflorescence Negligible Nil



Test results of clay flyash bricks (Table 2)

Sr. Item Permissible values Actual results

  PWD spec. IS 13757 

1 Compressive strength 105(Kg/esq.) 35-300 (Class 3.5 to 30) 270-320 

2 Water absorption (Max.) (%) 20 15 12

3 Efflorescence Not Appreciable Slight Nil to negligible.


Special Report

Construction Equipment Guide:EJCB Ltd


  Escorts JCB Limited, manufacturer of earth moving and construction equipment, is a joint venture between JC Bamford Excavators Limited of UK, the world leader in earthmoving and construction equipment and Escorts Limited, India’s leading engineering group. JCB is world number one producer for backhoe loader. The company offers a wide range of equipment such as Backhoe Loaders (Excavator-Loaders), Loading Shovels, newly introduced 20-Ton Tracked Excavators and Skid Steer Loaders. The JCB 4CX is the most powerful excavator loader ever built in India, and is miles ahead of competition in features, productivity and returns to the customer. Escorts JCB limited manufactures it. Features: The excavator loader has a structure that’s rugged and the styling is very modern and unrivalled. Its mainframe is a fully welded, tapered beam structure and is designed for durability using advanced computer analysis. This ensures correct distribution and dissipation of loader, backhoe and axle induced stresses. Despite its strength, it’s light in weight. The polyurethane based paint on the shot-blast cleaned machine structure lasts for a longer period, without losing its gloss. The fenders, cab roof and engine side panels are made from colour-impregnated polyethylene, which effectively resists stone damage, breakages, rust and weathering. They are virtually maintenance-free and look new for a long time. The leg rams are guarded against any side damage while working.


Escorts JCB Ltd,

23/7, Mathura Road,

Ballabgarh- 121004.

Haryana, India.

Tel: (91) 129 5232 308. Fax: (91) 129 5233 453.

 Construction Equipment Guide:Hyquip Projects Pvt. Ltd


  Hyquip has a focused professional team to offer aggregate crushing and screening plants including G.S.B. and wet mixing plants, strictly meeting the committed schedules, for which the project team has a proven track record. Hyquip offers a jaw-cone-VSI combination to ensure a more cubical product adhering to NHAI norms. Advantages: stationary, skid mounted and portable plant versions offered, plants built for a dust-free environment, projects commissioned in 3 months flat, quality aggregate guaranteed, meeting NHAI standards.


Hyquip Projects Pvt. Ltd,

‘Hyquip House',

1-1-564/1/A, Gandhinagar,

Hyderabad- 500 020.

Tel: ++91-40-761 3222, 760 7907, 760 7908. Fax: ++91-40-761 1468.,

 Construction Equipment Guide:L&T Komatsu Limited


  Larsen & Toubro Limited is India’s largest engineering and construction conglomerate with additional interests in IT, cement and the electrical business. L&T markets a wide range of high-pressure hydraulic products manufactured by L&T-Komatsu Limited. These products are high torque, low speed motors, multi-flow pumps, variable displacement pumps and motors to the specifications of Poclain Hydraulics S.A., France, and Sauer Sundstrand, Germany. L&T also markets and supports the entire range of products of these principals. Custom-designed hydraulic systems are also available. Indigenously developed hydraulic drives for sugarcane crushing mills and for high traction hydrostatic shunting locomotives offer higher efficiency and operating flexibility compared to traditional options.

Their range includes:


>High torque, low speed hydraulic motors - 172 cc/rev to 15,000 cc/rev.


Multi-flow pumps - 5 cc/rev to 500 cc/rev.


Closed circuit axial piston pumps and motors - 10 cc/rev to 333 cc/rev.


High-pressure hydraulic cylinders.


High pressure turning joints.


High-pressure hydraulic hoses.


Hydraulic drives for sugarcane crushing mills.


High traction hydrostatic shunting locomotives.


Customised hydraulic systems.


Larsen & Toubro Limited,

L&T House, Ballard Estate,

Mumbai 400 001, India.

Tel: +91-22-2618181. Fax: +91-22-2620223.


 Construction Equipment Guide:Metso Minerals


  Metso Minerals Nordberg Barmac B-Series VSI - rock-on-rock vertical shaft impact crusher draws on over 25 years of experience in VSI development by the world leader in the crusher industry. Metso Minerals’ technology and experience in designing, applying and servicing rock-on-rock crushers in a variety of applications has enabled production of autogenous VSI crushers which meet the customers need for producing increasing quantities of material to the required specification. With over 3000 units operating in aggregate and mineral processing installations around the world, Barmac rock-on-rock crushers have an established track record of cost savings, durability and unmatched performance in the variety of tasks to which they have been applied. These include the production of quality aggregates, sand, material for heap leaching, ball mill feed and finished product for industrial minerals. Barmac Crushers proved themselves in meeting shape specification incorporated by Ministry of Surface & Transport in building world class roads in India.  In India Metso Minerals has more than 60 satisfied customers who will wouch for Barmac’s superior performance.The B-Series crusher is available in seven models, ranging in capacity from 3 to 2080 tonnes per hour.


Metso Minerals (New Delhi) Pvt. Ltd.,

6th Floor, DLF Gateway Tower,

DLF City, Phase III,

Gurgaon - 122 002, Haryana, India

Tel : +91-124-6351541, Fax : +91-124-6351601.

 Construction Equipment Guide:Speedcrafts Limited

  Speedcrafts, the flagship company of the group was established in 1971 in Patna. All the products are built to stringent Indian and international standards and have found acceptance and acclaim. The drum mix plant from Speedcrafts Ltd. is of single chassis construction. At each bin a radial gate is provided which can be opened in any position to regulate the aggregate flow, individual endless belts are provided below the gates to discharge material onto the gathering belt. A single deck vibrating screen is provided on the slinger conveyor to remove oversize aggregates received from the 4-bin feeder. An inclined conveyor with 500 mm width belt mounted on idlers receives aggregate from the gathering conveyor and feeds it to the dryer.

  The features include:


Modern drum mix technology.


Produces high quality mix.


Portable or stationary.


High production rate.


Easy to operate.


Highly accurate aggregate feeders.


Low dust emission.


Plant mounted discharge conveyor with surge hopper.


Manufactured as per MOST specifications.


Speedcrafts Limited,

Layak Bhawan,

Boring Canal Road,

Patna- 800 001.

Tel: 0091-612-534514/530065/ 520277. Fax: 0091-612-527229.



 Construction Equipment Guide:Volvo

  Volvo Construction Equipment imports a range of products like excavators, motor graders and wheel loaders from manufacturing plants all over the world. The main products have been sourced from Volvo CE, Korea and Volvo Motor Graders, Canada. Volvo CE introduced state-of-the-art products and same products are being offered all over the world like in US and Europe. Their products offer low cost per ton in any applications through the initial cost is higher than compared to locally manufactured products. Volvo CE has introduced B series of excavators, E series wheel loaders, D series articulated haulers fitted with Volvo engines and electronically controlled engines meeting all the EU stage II standards and US EPA tier II standards. The cabin is economically designed for better operating comfort. The new series of machines allows higher payloads better fuel efficiency, ultimately offering lowest cost per ton. Volvo Construction Equipment is also offering the range of skid steer loader, tele handler and the backhoe loader. These machines have been launched in CONEXPO during March 2002.


Volvo India Private Limited,

Yalachahally, Tavarekere Post,Hosakote,

Bangalore- 562122.

Tel: +91 80 7965251-60. Tele-fax: +91 80 7965280, +91 80 7965281.


 Water: A buildings deadliest enemy

  Come monsoons and leakage and seepage problems, especially for roofs and terraces are at the forefront. This is a first in a series of three articles, that aims to equip the reader much in advance of the water onslaught, with clear waterproofing guidelines. SHAILEN SOHONI, Vice-President, Construction Chemicals Division, Pidilite Industries Limited, discusses causes of water seepage   in   general and solutions  to  specific  problems  related  to waterproofing terraces and tile roofs.

  Water  leakage  is  one  of  the main causes of deterioration of structures before  their  expected life span. It is mainly caused by poor construction practices arising out of ignorance, poor workmanship, inappropriateness of material  used,  incorrect  mixing  of  materials,  unauthorized structural changes and so on.

The  passage  of water through the structure not only results in peeling of plaster  or  paint  but  also  has  wider  implications. It accelerates the corrosion of the  embedded reinforcement  and also increases the rate of alkali  aggregate  reaction,  if  prevailing. The passage of water carries deleterious  salts and other chemicals, brings with it the efflorescence as well as promotes mould and fungus growth. In  treating water leakage problems the need for a scientific evaluation of the  root  causes and laying down of treatment methodologies by a qualified consultant cannot be over emphasized. Proper supervision and correct use of material  as  specified  by  the  manufacturer  are critical for successful treatment. In order to avoid the recurring problems relating to leakage, great  care  has to be taken right from the stage of design and planning of the  building.  Any  ingress of moisture from whichever areas, like terrace waterproofing,   brick  and  concrete  joints  at  chajjas, junctions and balconies  should  be  avoided.  These  are the points from which the water enters the buildings.

This  article  specifically  discusses  the  common causes for leakage’s in terraces,  their  treatment  as  well  as  precautions  to  be  taken while undertaking new constructions.


Problem 1 :

During  monsoons  the terrace frequently fills up with water causing leakage below :

Treatment :

There  could  be  mainly  two  reasons that cause ponding  of water on the terrace. First, improper  or ineffective slope of the terrace, due to which water will not be guided to the near by drain and second, blockage in rainwater down take pipes.  If the slope of the terrace is not proper, remove existing   brickbat   coba.   Clean  the  surface completely  and  apply  a  good quality SBR latex mixed  with cement in the proportion of 1:1.5, in two coats on the slab.

Overlay  new  brickbat  coba with proper slope to the  near  by  drainpipes.  Add  liquid  integral Waterproofing  Compound in the mortar (200 ml per 50  kg  cement) for filling of gaps in the brick bat coba.

To clear blockage in rrainwater down take pipes, empty  all  the rain water drain pipes and ensure proper  sealing  of  pipes  at  the  junction  of the parapet wall.


Problem 2 :

The  wata  in  the  terrace and chajja has cracks leading to seepage

Treatment : It  is  recommended  to  break the existing wata,   remove  all loose dust particles with the help of a  wire  brush, or water jet etc. Apply a coat of a good quality SBR latex mixed with cement in the proportion  of  1:  1.5  on  the surface, covering sufficient  area  of slab and wall. Make new wata in  1:3  cement mortar adding SBR latex 10 to 15% by weight of cement.


Problem 3 :

Seepage caused by cracks on the parapet wall

Treatment :

Seepage   through  parapet  wall  occurs  due  to improper  slope  of  the  top  surface or cracks. Remove  old plaster / coping from the top surface of  parapet  wall.

Clean the surface thoroughly. Add a liquid integral waterproofing compound into the  cement  mortar  @  200  ml  per 50 kg bag of cement  and  apply  on the top surface of parapet wall giving a proper slope towards terrace slab. The  next  day,  fix  a  cudappa stone with a good quality  pre  blended  tile  adhesive  on  the top surface of the parapet wall.


Problem 4 :

Drip  leakage  from  the  RCC  water tank  on  the terrace.

Treatment :

This  leakage can be immediately stopped by using cement  based  instant  leak  plugging  compound. However,  this  is  a  temporary  solution  and a permanent repair method such as pressure grouting or waterproof coating should be adopted.


Problem 5 :

Waterproofing a brick bat coba in new construction or during terrace repair.

Treatment :

To minimize the voids  and cracks in the coba, liquid  integral waterproofing compound should be used  with cement mortar (200 ml per 50 kg bag of cement  in  the  mortar) to make this system more impermeable.  A  coat  of  SBR latex  mixed with cement  (in  the  ratio of 1: 1.5) should also be mixed with the screed before laying the brickbat.


Problem 6 :

Waterproofing a Mangalore tile roof

Treatment :

Before  the  fixing of Mangalore tiles, a coating of  a polymer modified bitumen compound should be applied  on the roof along with a wire mesh, which will provide  a  waterproof barrier to the slab. The tile fixing can be done above the wire mesh.

In  case  you have any further queries related to waterproofing or repairs, please write to editor@constructionupdate.comso that they can be answered in our next issue.

 Maintenance contract

  Building maintenance is nothing short of 70% labour and 30% materials. According to ANIL AGARWAL the tough job is to estimate materials and manpower required for repair works. Past experiences and the market trends make it possible to attain an accurate budget for routine maintenance.

  The relationship between the client and the contractor varies; the choice is influenced considerably by circumstances. The various contractual agreements that can be used for repair and retrofitting works are:


Lump Sum contract.


Scheduled contracts.


Cost reimbursement contract.


Fixed price contracts.


Lump Sum Contacts

Lump sum contract is preferred in Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata and other parts of India for repairs and retrofitting works. Here, the contractor undertakes to carry out the specified work till completion, which is inclusive of the equipment, labour and materials for a specified lump sum amount or subject to adjustment for extras, variations and omissions ordered in accordance with the terms of the contract. The contract is basically for the entire work or only for the materials provided under such a contract till such work is completed, until unless special provision is made for payments on account, on interim certificates, during the progress of the work. It is not possible on the part of the client, to refuse to pay the contractor merely because there are certain defects or omissions. Even if a certain amount of work is completed, the client has to pay the contract price subject to deduction by way of set-off or counter claim of defects.


Cost Reimbursement Contracts

Under this contract, the contractor carries out the work and he is paid the prime cost of labour and materials or a previously agreed percentage of fixed fee to cover overhead charges or the profit. The disadvantages of this type of a contract are, absence of any financial incentives to encourage the contractor to carry out the work as economically as possible. It may be restricted to special types of jobs, where no other method is possible. The additional cost of supervision is the factor which should not be neglected.


Scheduled Contracts

This type of contract is also called measure and value contract. It is handy where the details are too scanty to permit for the preparation of a precise specification at the time of commencement of work. The schedule lists all items of labour and materials, which are expected to be required and may be on ad-hoc schedule for a particular job, based on past experience of similar jobs or standard schedule designed to cover a wide range of jobs.


Item Rate Contracts

This contract deals in measurement of each item of the work as given in the bill of quantities, and the sum to be paid is arrived at based on the rates quoted against each item. In the bill of quantities all the items are described in detail along with the quantities. Here the rates are a part of the contract and quantities, which carry the prefix "approximate", do not form a part of the contract, and variations in the quantities will not vitiate the contract.


Selection of contract

The type of the contract suitable for specific tasks depends on various parameters such as project details available, cost of the work, complexity and nature of the work. If the degree of the project detailing is very high and the project is not complex neither liable for any modifications nor alternations during execution, lump sum type of contracts are more preferred ones. If the projects have a low degree of detailing and there are chances of changes in design or materials, such projects may be allotted on item rate contract basis or cost reimbursement contracts are suitable. Routine building maintenance and repair jobs can be of lump sum contract type to avoid cumbersome documentation and laborious close follow-up. Repair jobs, which are expensive, and costs running into lakhs, whereas it is difficult to have detailed information, prior to execution can be given on cost reimbursement contract basis.


Contract documents

A typical contract may include any or all of the following documents, which form the basis of agreement.


Tender notice


General instructions, and directions for the use of contractors


Form of contract


Bill of quantities


List of materials, if any, agreed to be supplied to the contractor by the owner, and the condition of supply


Specifications: General and particular




Conditions of contract


In addition to the above, letters, if any exchanged between the parties while the contract was being negotiated, should be included in the list, if their contents have not been included in the written agreement. Many a times parties seek clarifications of some points or impose or accept special conditions prior to entering into a written agreement. Failure of parties to reduce all such terms and conditions in writing and to include them in the written agreement may put a party to great loss.


A Methodical Approach to Repair and Retrofitting

The building has to be repaired in a methodical way. The first step in this direction would be inspection of the building to ascertain the extent of damage and the items damaged and decayed. The next step would be the analysis, based on the inspection report, of the damage or the decay, and diagnose the root cause of the damage or the decay. Once the cause is established the next step would be the suggestion of remedial measures and preparation of a report on the findings. On approval of the report by the authority of the client, a detailed quantity survey of the items of the works to be done, as remedial measures shall be undertaken and an estimate would be prepared indicating the cost involved. On approval of the estimate, the work shall be taken up after observing other formalities like tendering, etc. On completion of the planning part of the job, on receipt of approval of the estimate and allocation of fund, a work programme has to be framed for speedy and systematic implementation of the scheme. A bar chart or a critical path network may be drawn for monitoring the progress of the work. It is a general impression, that programming is required for execution of construction of projects of original works only.


Actually more rethinking and framing of rigid programme with due consideration of priority of the execution of the items needs to be made in case of repairs and rehabilitation works. If the execution is not systematic and methodical, haphazard execution of the items may result in a disaster. Each item needs to be judged carefully and priority has to be allotted with due consideration of the effect of execution of the items. As a convention, repair works should be undertaken from the lower portion of the building i.e. strengthening the structure from the bottom and move upwards.


Select Readings


Lee Reginald, Building Maintenance Management, Crossby Lockwood Staple, London.


P.K. Guha, Maintenance & Repairs of Building, New Central Book Agency Publications, New Delhi, 1995.


Simon M.S., Construction Contracts and Claims, McGraw Hill, New York.


McCaffer R. and Baldwin A.N, Estimating and Tendering for Civil Engineering Works, Thomas Telford, London.



 “We are exporting to 9 countries”.

- Shree Gopal Kabra - President, RR Kabel.


  Tell us something about RR Kabel?

RR Kabel basically is a family of enterprising professionals. The Group is engaged in diverse, carefully selected business activities, with the common guiding factors being limitless growth prospects, long term demand potential, an upmarket target clientele and business strategy of responding to emerging market needs by applying state-of-the-art technology.



What is your range of products?

The range includes- Fire survival (FS) cables, RatnaFlex-S, RatnaFlex-M, RatnaCom, Unilay conductors, Firex HFFR, Flame retardant low smoke (FRLS), RatnaLAN, Superex.



Has the budget been of any help?

Not in any way specifically. There was nothing which would give the cable companies some respite.



What about exports?

Yes we are into exports and currently we are exporting to 9 countries, which include our neighbouring countries.



What were your sales figures for last year and what is the target for the current year?

The sales are approximately 30 cr. (target was 36 cr.). Next financial year the target is 65 cr.



Do you have any joint ventures?

Yes, for technology we are in talks with some major companies, which would benefit us in the long run.



What is the problem faced by the cable industry and is there scope for improvements?

The major problem is nothing but the unorgnised sector and the duplication of products. As there are no associations formed by the cable companies they have to find a solution themselves for the problems they face.



Do you have agents or distributors?




How are customers problem solved?

The consumers can approach our representatives who are placed in various parts of the country. The customer can directly talk to the representative and get the problem solved. Not only that he or she can even approach us directly.



How do you tackle the problem of duplication?

We don’t see any problem in that area. We are using superior technology for production, which cannot be imitated by other cable manufacturers. I think those who are trying to duplicate us stand no chance.



What are your future plans?

We are expanding in a big way. And we are also planning to get some major technologically advanced machines that have better production capacity and better facility standards. We also plan to increase our existing range of products, and improve quality standards.



Where do you see RR Kabel in the next five years?

In the next five years RR Kabel would be the No. 1 quality product company in India. In the long run we plan to focus more on quality.




 “The cable industry is definitely growing. The future is good and healthy”.

- Inder T. Jaisinghani - Chairman & Managing Director, Polycab.


  Tell us something about the setting-up of Polycab

Polycab started in 1975 with a very small factory in Mumbai. In 1997 the company had a big plant at Daman. It is a very modern plant and is also well equipped.



What is the range of your products?

Polycab’s growth has been phenomenal compared to other cable manufacturers, and HT cables are doing well in the market. We manufacture- housewires, HT cables, power control cables, instrumentation cables, flexible cables, land cables. In fact all our products are doing well. For us customer satisfaction is most important.



What about exports?

This year ending (March) we will export worth Rs. 15 cr. Next financial year we expect it to be around 40-50 cr.



Is the central govt. helping in any way?

Most of the power projects are handled by NTPC, the govt. is not giving any major thrust as of now.



What are the problems faced by the cable industry, and is there scope for improvements?

Consumer line is slow, local requirements are less. The improvement is in the form of exports.



What were the sales figures last year, and what is the target for current year?

Year ending March 2001 we did a business of 221 cr. (electrical), and telecom 48 cr. This year expectancy is 275 cr. for electrical, and telecom should be about 98 cr.



What are your future plans?

We are expanding in a big way. We want to have good customer interaction, for which we even have a consumer cell. We want to give our customers the best. We are also educating the customers to look out for genuine products among the duplicate ones.



What about the future of the cable industry?

The cable industry is definitely growing. The future is good and healthy.



Where do you see Polycab in next five years?

Right on top, the No. 1 company in the country.


 Cables- All Wired Up!


  The electrical power sector is a core component of India’s infrastructure and its expansion is essential for the success of India’s efforts to liberalise its economy. Cables are therefore very important and act as useful link between the power utilities on one side and users on the other side.


India embarked upon the path of liberalisation and economic reforms way back in the 1980’s, the first attempt being the opening up of electronics and telecom equipment manufacturing sectors. The reform process received a boost in the year 1991 when the government initiated the economic reforms programme to bring about fast and substantial economic growth and globalisation of the economy. Since 1991, India is going through an exciting phase of the reform process and has opened up its economy to an extent. India has already globalised its economy by having substantially relaxed provisions related to foreign investment, industrial licensing, foreign exchange controls etc. The import policy has been streamlined and physical barriers on imports have been lowered. The capital market has been opened for foreign investment with 100% foreign direct investment permitted in power sector. In such a scenario, cables are very important and act as useful link between the power utilities on one side and users on the other side. High voltage cables are used mainly in power stations, large switchyards and major industrial complexes. Medium voltage cables are used for power distribution in metropolitan cities. Low voltage cables have a variety of applications from power distribution to controls. The electrical power sector is a core component of India’s infrastructure and its expansion is essential for the success of India’s economy liberalisation efforts. The industry is also facing problems, as majority of the sectors are showing no signs of growth. Shree Gopal Kabra, President- RR Kabel states that the problem lies in the accumulation of the unorganized sector and the duplication of the products. The industry is further hampered by a dearth of business on account of the lack of investment in the power infrastructure. N. K. Sabharwal, VP- Mktg, Paramount Communication adds that this is compounded by the requirements for cables (especially for cables used in power, refineries and industrial sector) being reduced to delay in projects and current economic scenario of the industry. The scenario could be improved by giving a thrust to exports says Inder T. Jaisinghani - Chairman & Managing Director, Polycab.


The applicaations of the cable indutry range from residential to commercial to industrial. Given the varied needs of the industry there are a variety of products available today.


Types of cables


PVC Insulated Electric cables-

These cables are used for wiring domestic and commercial buildings.

Flameguard FRLS cables-

These cables are ideal for wiring in residential and commercial complexes, high-rise buildings, hotels, hospitals, schools, colleges, etc where density of people is high.

PVC single core flexible cables-

These are used for wiring in control panels, machines and various electrical installations in small, medium and large industries.

PVC Multicore flexible cables

- These multi core flexible cables are used for wiring in control panels, machines and various electrical installations in dry and damp interiors especially under typical industrial environmental conditions.

Core flat cables-

The PVC insulated and sheathed 3 core flat cables are used for giving electrical connection to the submersible pump motors. These cables conform to and are marked IS 694: 1990 up to 4.0 sq. mm. 1.1 KV

Power Cables-

The Power Cables are used under ground as well as for over head transmission of power in power plants, industries, projects and all other electrical installations. CA TV Trunk coaxial cables- Co-axial Trunk cables are used generally to interconnect head-ends of different cable TV operators. These cables are used for transmission of cable and TV signals.

Fibre Optic cables-

These cables are used in backbone, junction and local access networks in telecommunications by BTNL, MTNL, Basic service operators, CATV operators and other large projects.

Jelly filled telephone cables-

These cables play a vital role in communication by maintaining their effectiveness in trying conditions.

It would be wrong to say that all is well, but there is a sure glimmer of hope in the industry that things would brighten up in the long run. The need of the hour is to ensure speedy implementation of commissioned power projects as well as to give a healthy push to exports. Keeping a tab on the unorganised sector as well as weeding out unscrupulous manufacturers of sub-standard and duplicate products would also help. There also has to be a collective effort by the industry to educate the people to appreciate the little higher cost of standard product against the attendant risks of using cheaper cables. It is hoped that the next few decades will be an era of prosperity for the cable and electrical industry and the large home base will give an edge in the international market by offering competitive prices, thereby increasing export demand.

 Construction Equipment Guide:ECEL

  Escorts Construction Equipment Limited (ECEL), is a wholly owned subsidiary of Escorts Limited, manufacturing and marketing a diverse range of equipment like cranes, loaders, vibratory loaders and forklifts. The company was a pioneer in introducing the concept of Pick ‘n’ Carry hydraulic mobile cranes in 70s in India and continues to be the world’s largest producer of these cranes. 

  The features of these cranes include:


Engine- Simpson S-433 (I) four cylinder, water cooled diesel engine developing 49 BHP at 2200 RPM or a suitable equivalent engine lSafety systems- overload audio warning system lOverhoist audio warning system lSafety brake on hoist lStandard accessories- all weather cabin, front bumper lSteering- articulated steering, hydraulically controlled through two-double acting jacks lBrakes- pneumatically assisted hydraulic brakes, mechanical shoe brakes actuated through a hydraulic slave cylinder, mechanically actuated at rear wheels lHoist mechanism- four falls lHydraulic winch with 6.5 4m hook travel, rope dia. is 13 mm.



Escorts Construction Equipment Limited,

Plot No. 2,

Sector 13,Faridabad- 121007, Haryana, India.

Tel: 0129- 283073, 284911. Fax: 0129-283065.




 Construction Equipment Guide:Greaves Limited


  Greaves manufactures the following construction equipments: Soil compactors of 10 T capacity, drum drive variant, non-drum drive variant, tandem vibratory loaders, light tandem rollers, concrete pumps, transit mixers. The Greaves Bomag BW 151 ADH-2 is a heavy duty tandem vibrating roller designed for use on major contracts involving the compaction of wearing course, base course, road base and sub base layers. Features: The BW 151 ADH-2 has an operating weight in excess of 8 tons and has proven compaction capability on medium to large-scale works. The choice of high and low compaction setting permits effective utilization under changing site conditions thereby increasing plant utilization and reducing costs per cubic metre laid. Excellent visibility from the operating position to drum surface and kerbside makes the BW 151 ADH-2 effortless and less tiring for the operator. Direct driving light torque drum motors create best possible driving efficiency, reduce wear and tear and require lesser maintenance. The driving is smooth and produces less strain on sensitive asphalt surfaces.


Greaves Limited,

Industry Manor,

Apasaheb Marathe Marg,

Prabhadevi,Mumbai- 400 025, India.

Tel (O): (91-22) 4223747, 4365510. Fax: 4377730.

 Construction Equipment Guide:Ingersoll-Rand


  Ingersoll-Rand launched the hydrostatic sensor paver model IPF551 suitable for paving 5.5 mtr width. Presently, the 10 Ton class soil compactors, 9 ton class tandem rollers, 2 ton class shoulder compaction equipment and the 22/25 ton class pneumatic tyre rollers are indigenously manufactured under total technology support from their principals Ingersoll-Rand USA. Ingersoll-Rand India’s Product Specialists are trained at IR-Blaw-Knox, USA for continuous product and technology update to ensure optimum utilization and machine performance. Ingersoll-Rand India has been re-certified to ISO 9001 quality systems by LRQA. To support the market demand, Compaction and the Paving products are built on DFT (Demand Flow Technology) to ensure machines are built at right time with each component having the quality stamp of acceptance. The IPF551 complements the Road Development products manufactured at Bangalore facility by getting the technology from IR Blaw-knox USA. IPF-551 is a wheel mounted paver finisher, capable of placing bituminous base binder and surface coarse mixes, cement or lime stabilized sub-base and graded aggregate material, with Omni V screed, hydraulically extendable from 2.5 mtr to 4.75 mtrs, with add on up to 5.5 mtrs. The most important feature of IPF551 is accuracy in paving, smooth mat finish by using the state-of-the art Blaw-Kontrol II (AGS 7.5) ™ with an electronic grade and slope control. The screed has electrically blown LPG fuel burners, to pre-heat the screed plates. Flame failure and high temperature shut down protection is provided for safety.

Technical Specifications

IVECO 8040.25 Engine 107 HP @ 2200 rpm

Basic paving width 2.5 meters

Standard paving width 2.5 to 4.75 mtrs

Paving range with bolt-on Up to 5.50 mtrs

Lift thickness 300 mm

Tamper speed 1800 rpm

Vibrator speed 3500 rpm

Hopper capacity 7.50 ton



Business Manager – Asphalt Ingersoll-rand (India) Ltd.,

Bangalore-560 058.

Telephone: 080-8395791. Fax: 080-8394651.

 Construction Equipment Guide:M.S.S. Engineering and Industrial Equipment Pvt. Ltd.


  M.S.S. Engineering and Industrial Equipment Pvt. Ltd., manufactures reversible drum mini plant-600R. The equipment has a robust construction to give prolonged trouble-free service and best results. Reversible rotation of the mixer is the unique feature of the mini batching plant. It is suited for dual purpose of mixing as well as discharge of mixed concrete corresponding to the rotation of the drum. The hydraulic loading is done by the difference in pressure of the hydraulic fluid (in the cylinder). It is used for upward and downward movement of the hoper. For ease of operation, all controls like hydraulic loader actuator and drum rotation are grouped at one end of the mixer. The drum gear ring is made out of cast steel. The robust chassis of all steel construction is fitted with wheels to ease the towing of mixer and a drawbar. The weigh batch system is optional. Some technical specifications include:

Unmixed capacity- 600 ltrs , mixed capacity- 400 ltrs, gross volume of drum- 1,800 ltrs, drum speed- 16 RPM, no. of batches per hour- 30 nos., production rate max. per hour- 10 to 12 cu. mtr., water tank capacity- 110 ltrs, wheels- 4 nos, electric motor- 15 HP. The overall dimension: Length (hopper lowered)- 3.84 mtrs, width- 2.00 mtrs, height (hopper raised)- 3.51 mtrs, height to top of water tank- 2.66 mtrs, hopper loading height- 0.90 mtrs, weight of basic machine- 2550 Kgs.


M.S.S. Engineering and Industrial Equipment Pvt. Ltd.,

156,Thambu Chetty Street,

Chennai- 600 001, India.

Tel: 5340357, 5354294, 5330938. Fax: 044-5354294.

 Construction Equipment Guide:Schwing Stetter


  Construction Equipment Guide:Schwing Stetter Swing Stetter is a company which is represented worldwide and is a trendsetter and market leader in most countries. The company holds patent rights for many high performance, cost saving superior designs and parts. The World’s largest manufacturer of concrete pumps brings you a complete range of truck and trailer-mounted units to provide a model for every application. From Schwing’s management to their nationwide network of dealers, no other group embodies as much concrete pumping experience. From one-pump customers to the largest fleets in the world, Schwing truly brings solutions, value and success to the industry.

The company manufactures:


Batching plant 30(M)3/hr.


Transit mixer 4(M)3 – 12(M) 3.


Concrete pump 36(M)3 – 110(M)3/ hr.


Tunnel placing equipment 290(M)3/ hr.

Among its range of concrete pumps, Schwing's KVM 17 Boom Pump has the following benefits: Maneuverability on-site and economic single-axle truck mountings; lightweight; low unfolding height and quality; provides the reach and output necessary for many projects.


Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt. Ltd.,

4/107, Ramapuram Road,

Sathya Nagar,Manapakkam,

Chennai – 600 089.

Tel: 91-44-2490591/ 1592/ 9011/ 9016.


 Construction Equipment Guide:Telcon


  Telcon is the leading provider of solutions in the construction equipment industry and in line with bringing the latest product in this country has launched the Tata-Hitachi EX 70 hydraulic excavator. Features: It is powered by the popular Tata 497NA diesel engine now with a bigger bucket capacity and higher digging force for increased productivity. Its unique and patented advanced and efficient Optimum Hydraulic System (OHS) ensures combined, smooth fuel-efficient and speedy operations. Also its Fuel-saving Pump System (FPS) enables proportional flow of the fuel in the hydraulic pumps depending on the lever stroke to prevent loss of fuel in hydraulic pumps and to prevent loss of energy thereby leading to superior performance. The sleek aesthetics, ergonomically designed seat with seat belts and all round visibility cabin with tinted glass, music system, fan, hangers, bottle stand and added safety features with simplified maintenance enhances operator comfort thus increasing productivity. Being compact in size, the EX 70 with an operating weight of 7220 kg and with increased bucket capacity of 0.10-0.32 m3, can be transported on a tipper, to access and work in otherwise restricted areas. Also it can be fitted with a backfill dozer blade, and has a wide range of attachments for diverse applications. We have a 95% market share in this class having a large population of over 2,500 customers. It is the largest selling and the most successful hydraulic excavator model in its class ever introduced in India. Success of these mini excavators is not new since they were introduced in 1996 and are the fastest growing segment. It has made inroads into the hiring and have developed a market for small contractors and hirers because of its affordable price, higher productivity, higher digging force, diverse applications, multitude versatility and easy to transport which can also work in marshy or soft terrain where no wheeled equipment can work, and in a confined area too because of the 360 degree swing. The mainframe and tractor type undercarriage is designed for easy transportation on tipper or truck to reduce transportation time.


Arindam Banerjee,


Jubilee Building,

45 Museum Road,

Bangalore – 560 025.

Tel: 080 5583345 46, Fax: 080 5583343,


 Construction Equipment Guide:Tigarbo Construction Techniques (India) Pvt. Ltd.

  Tigarbo auto concrete mixers are now available in India, which are being imported from Russia and marketed by Tigarbo Construction Techniques India Pvt. Ltd in India. Tigarbo transit mixers are manufactured by J.S.Co.,”Komz - Export”, Russia , one of the top leading firms in producing construction equipment. Tigarbo Construction Techniques India Pvt. Ltd is the only one authorised dealer for J.S.Co.,”Komz - Export” entire range of mixers. Since 1979 the factory started autoconcretemixer’s output co-operating with in the framework of the international scientific manufacturing cooperation. The license technology of “Stetter” is the base for autoconcrete mixer’s construction. At present the factory is manufacturing the concrete mixers of different modifications of mixing drum capacity from 4cu.m to 12cu.m on chassis Kamaz, Zil, Maz, Mzkt, Nissan, Volvo, Mercedes, Leyland, Telco and other types of chassis including trailers.  The result of more than 20 years of production and exporting to 19 countries, is high quality and reliability. Presence of a service centre at the factory in Chennai makes it possible to produce complete services for the Indian market. Plans are on the anvil to open service centres throughout the country.


Tigarbo Construction Techniques (India) Pvt. Ltd.,

E/5, 284, II Main Road,

Muthamizh Nagar, Kodungaiyur,

Chennai – 600 118. India.

Tel: +91 44 5540646. Tele-fax: +91 44 5541678.

 Waterproofing of Structures - New Trends

  Leakage / Seepage of water through concrete is one of the major problems faced by engineers today all over the world. The advancements in science and recent developments in materials technology have lead to the development of several systems and techniques for waterproofing of structures. by M. S. Venkatesh- Business Manager, Fosroc Chemicals (India) Limited.

  Waterproofing is defined as ‘treatment of surface or structure to prevent the passage of water under hydrostatic pressure and damp proofing is defined as treatment to surface or structure to exit passage of water in the absence of hydrostatic pressure’.


Requirements of waterproofing techniques or systems:


Impermeability to prevent passage of water


Minimise water absorption by substrate

Good bonding with substrate


Elasticity to resist cracking


Easy to apply


Compatibility with substrate


Resistance to UV attack


Resistance to service temperature differentials


Resistance to water


Long life and durability




Systems and techniques of waterproofing:

Various systems and techniques are available to check the entry or passage of water through concrete and thus prevent leakage/seepage in structures. Some of these are described below:

1. Lime terracing

2. Mud Phuska with burnt tiles

3. Brick bat coba


The above methods were very popular in the past but with recent advances in the science of materials technology these systems are being replaced by the modern techniques. The disadvantages of these conventional systems are:


Non-availability of skilled labour


Cumbersome procedure


Time consuming


High labour cost



This is one of the conventional systems and consists of depositing an impervious layer of rich cement mortar over the surface to be waterproofed and is carried out by using a special gun.



This technique is essentially used to reduce the porosity or permeability of concrete as a first step towards waterproofing. Highly fluid materials known as grouts are injected into the body of concrete under pressure. Different types of grouts such as cement, grouts, polymer modified cementitious grouts, epoxies etc. are used for grouting. This is not a complete system and needs further treatment like coatings.


Ferrocement treatment

Ferrocement is ideal for use in old buildings constructed with lime concrete upon which other systems do not work very effectively. The advantages of ferrocement are:


High tensile and flexural strengths


Better resistance to fatigue and impact


High crack resistance


Good bonding with substrate


Easy and simple application






Bituminous System

Bitumen and bituminous materials are still considered as very effective systems for waterproofing. These are used either as hot applied or cold applied. The main advantages of these systems are:


Low cost


Cheap labour


Easy application However they suffer from demerits like black colour, fast degradation under exposed conditions and UV, low resistance to high differentials of temperature.


Sheeting materials single ply synthetic roofing membranes The recent advances in polymer science have resulted in the single ply roofing membranes like flexible PVC membranes in the thermoplastic category & EPDM (Ethylene propylene diene monomers)in the elastomeric category.


The major advantages of single ply membrane are:


Light weight lQuick & Neat job


Attractive colours and designs


Reduced fire hazards


Safety of workers during installation


Integral waterproofers: These are mainly used to reduce the water absorption and the porosity / permeability of concrete. They also increase cohesion and hence improve the surface finish. They are broadly classified into three groups.


Permeability reducers


Water repellents or hydrophobes


Polymer modifiers


Water stops

Water stops play a crucial role in concrete construction, preventing seepage of water or other liquids through construction, contraction and expansion joints. Different types of water stops are used and suitable ones among them are flexible water stops made of materials like PVC or rubber and pre formed strips, bentonite based strips, hydrophobic rubber strips and hydrophyllic vinyl ester gaskets.



Sealants are basically used to seal the joints that are provided in structures (expansion / construction / control / isolation etc). Sealants were developed earlier based on oil putties and bituminous mastics to seal the joints but later the advent of new polymers and elastomers have lead to development of variety of high performance sealants. These new generation sealants are based on polysulphides, polyurethane, silicones etc. The sealants are required to provide a seal against water ingress or seepage in addition to other properties like movement accommodation etc.


Water repellent coatings

These are applied on the exterior face of buildings and provides:


Protection against efflorescence


Prevention of fungi or algae growth


Prevention of seepage or leakage of water


Protection of exterior paint

Basically water repellents are of silicone base and are mainly of two types water based and solvent based.


New Trends in Waterproofing

These are one of the modern techniques of waterproofing. The coatings used are based on various polymeric systems such as silicates, silicones, coal tar, epoxies, polyurethane, acrylics etc. The advantages of using these polymeric membranes for waterproofing are manifold and they are briefly explained therein.


a. Silicone coatings

These are colour-less water repellent solutions, which are mainly used to protect masonry structures. The advantages of these coatings are low cost and ease of application but they are limited life, poor crack bridging characteristics and are incapable of withstanding hydrostatic pressure.

Silicon based coatings are broadly classified into silicones (Silicone resins, silanes and siliconates) and silicates (alkaline silicates, dialkyl silicates etc.)


b. Water based coatings

These coatings are based on different types of polymers or co polymers such as SBR, SBS, PVA, acrylics etc. and they are used to check the dampness and efflorescence in buildings. Water based coatings have superior performance in comparison to other coatings as they provide breathability characteristics. They also have good compatibility with substrate and also adequate resistance to weathering.


c.Polymer modified cementitious coatings (PMCC)

Water-soluble polymer in conjunction with cement makes good water proofing systems. They have good adhesion with substrate, low water permeability, and compatibility with host concrete.


d.Epoxy coatings

Epoxy based coatings are mostly used for waterproofing and damp proofing for internal applications. The advantages of the epoxy coatings are good adhesion with different substrates, high chemical resistance, good mechanical properties, impermeability etc. The disadvantages are limited resistance to UV & high cost.


e. Modified epoxy coatings

Epoxy coating are modified with other polymeric systems such as polysulphide, coal tars, polyurethane etc. to overcome their disadvantages for use in external applications.


f.Polyurethane coatings

The advantages of these coatings are high elasticity, excellent bonding with substrate, cracking and abrasion resistance, resistance to reathering, UV attack etc. Polyurethane based products are available in the form of one component or two component systems.

One-component systems are usually solvent based while two component systems may be solvent based or solvent free.


g.Polymer based spray-applied membrane.

These are designed for a range of applications including basements, roofing, tunnels, water tanks, pile tops, terraces, underground structures etc. The advantages are its high bond strength, seamless, high elongation and flexibility, crack bridging capacity, withstands negative pressure, puncture resistance, high tensile strengths, sets instantly on application etc. This needs special equipment for spraying. This can be applied on any substrate and to various profiles like shells, folded plates etc.

The second part of the article will be carried in the forthcoming issue.




 Teri – Calling nature 

  An innovative, eco-friendly and energy efficient building complex occupied by TERI’s Southern Regional Centre in Bangalore, is designed to derive maximum benefits from nature’s basic elements and minimise demand on conventional energy.

  Teri’s Southern Regional centre in Bangalore occupies a building complex that marks a novel paradigm in the creation of an energy-efficient, environmentally benign office space, meeting all expectations. The Rs. 2.95 cr. building complex built in 25,000 sq. ft. area, is said to be the first of its kind in South India. The design conveys a dextrous interplay of the five basic natural elements (sun, air, earth, water and the sky) with the built form. This minimises demand on conventional energy, thereby optimising an unhindered flow of intellectual energies. Thus, proximity to nature enhances creativity, otherwise trapped in a jungle of concrete.



The cost of building such a complex is the same as that of any other conventional building. The extra cost incurred is of the equipment such as solar water heating system and a solar photovoltaic system.


Functional layout

The office complex comprises of office space for 75 professionals, with additional ancillary spaces for meeting, conference, laboratories, library, and restrooms. An area for relaxation, for the professionals, has been provided, with supporting common dining and health as well as fitness facilities. The office spaces have been delineated to reflect the concept of “caves” to “commons”. The caves almost relate to the intimate small space provided for individual workgroups, and the “commons” relate to the atria, courts, nodes and corridors meant for wider interaction. The concept goes very well with the work team ethos where each team has a specific role. Through interactions, new ideas evolve a single to a whole concept.


Design response to impacts of site

The primary wind movement being from the south towards the north, and the presence of a foul smelling nallah flowing along the southern boundary of the site, was a challenge for the designer. The site constraint governed the development of a built form to deflect the foul winds, and to ensure ventilation adequacy. The black absorption wall with cuddapah stone cladding has been built in the south to offset the negative impact of the site. The south wall therefore, acts as an independent system, linking with rear walls of the building over a cavity. Thus the whole building is designed facing the north. This enables the building to benefit from the diffused light of the northern side.


Working of the system

The sun’s rays heat the black south wall, which increases the temperature of the immediate environment around (in this case being the air within the cavity). This causes the heated air inside the cavity to rise upwards through convectional means. These convectional currents are pulled away by the natural winds blowing from south towards the north. Thereby, creating a vacuum at the top core of the structure. To fill up this vacuum, air from inside is drawn up which is again pulled up by the moving convectional currents. This system, of rising of the hot air and the drawing in of cool fresh air is a continuous process. Hence, reverse wind circulation is established, by bringing in the cool fresh air, from the north open face of the building, and drawing it through the entire section of the structure, which is removed by convectional means upwards through solar wind vents.


Roof insulation

Roof is a major source of heat gain in buildings. Roof gardens are being developed on the roof of the building to reduce heat gains and thus moderate internal temperature.


Daylighting and energy efficient lighting

With an incredible lighting system as that of the sun, it became imperative to incorporate daylighting by natural means as a major design feature. There was a detailed daylighting study and the fenestrations have been designed in such a way, that the requirement of artificial lighting is minimal during daytime. By creating atrium spaces with skylights, the section of the building is designed in such a way, that natural day light enters into the heart of the building, considerably reducing the dependence on artificial lighting. Energy efficient lighting, using efficient lamps, luminaries and control strategies, further reduces lighting loads in the building.


Energy generation

The building complex boasts of solar water heating system, a solar photovoltaic panel and a transplanted terrace garden. Solar water heating has been used to meet hot water requirements of the kitchen and other utilities. A 5 kW peak solar photovoltaic system meets a part of the power requirement. A solar roof is being planned, which would have a series of photovoltaic panels, integrated into the roof to capture solar energy and store it in a battery bank for use at night. It has overcome various site constraints including a foul smell emanating from the adjoining storm water drain. As against the ordinary buildings of this size, which require around 80 km of power, this environmentally benign an aesthetically beautiful building needs just 10 km of power.


Rainwater harvesting

Water management plays an effective role in rainwater harvesting systems. Water from the various levels of terraces is directed towards a central collection “pond”. The amount of water collected is directly proportional to the seasonal changes in the monsoons. The water collected is treated according to the level of requirement, but generally is used for various maintenance purposes, like use in sprinklers for landscape covers, etc.

The innovative systems, which have been incorporated in this eco-friendly building complex of TERI’s Southern Regional Centre, constitute but a beginning. To make the building truly sustainable in all respects, its planners have left scope for a number of improvements and improvisations. Dr. R. K. Pachauri, director, TERI, says, “The complex is a judicious blend of technology and tradition symbolising the institutes faith in research and commitment to sustainable development”. He further stated that the complex, inaugurated by the chief minister should serve as an example for planners, builders, and architects to usher in a new revolution in the habitat sector. Some of the other features planned include, an effective waste and water management system, a centralized un-interrupted power supply, and a cooler kitchen seeking to reduce internal heat.



TERI Southern Regional Centre,

4th Main, Domlur II Stage,

Bangalore - 560 071 Karnataka.

Telephone: +91 80 5356590-97/5354929/5551566,Fax: +91 80 5356589

List of Contactors Associated with Bangalore Office

Name  Address Nature of Contracts

M/s Lakshmi Nirman Pvt Ltd. 15, Srikantan Lay out, High Grounds, Crescent Road,Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: 080-2258205/2262119 Construction of Building

M/s. Team 3 Landscapes 429, 2nd A Cross, 3rd Stage, 3rd Block, Basaveshwaranagar,Bangalore 560 079.Tel: 080-3231562. Landscaping 

M/s. Trac Fujico Air Systems # 38, 1st Main, 1st Stage, Domlur Layout,Bangalore 560 071. Tel: 91-80-5511393/617, 5564461 Fax: 91-80-5511392 E-mail: Website: Supply & Installation of Airconditioners

M/s. DPK Engineering ADA Rangamandira, Complex, Opp. Ravindra Kalakshetra, J C Road, Bangalore 560 002.Tel: 080-2223476/223316/2234320/2275227 Fax: 080-2238194. Suppy & installation of Diesel Generator Set.

M/s. Supreme Metal Components (I) P. Ltd 306, Adarsha Plaza, Sawai Jai Singh, Highway, Khasa Kothi Circle, Jaipur 302 016.Tel: 0141-406718/719 Supply & Installation of Solar water heating system

M/s. Haritasa Electronics Inc. # 204, II ‘B’ Main, II ‘E’ Cross, Girinagar -I Phase, Bangalore- 560 085.Tel: 080-6721433 Supply & Installation of Music systems

M/s. Featherlite Collections No. 16/A, Miller Road,Bangalore 560 052. Tel: 080-2264010 / 2203813 / 12 Fax: 080-2256083.E-mail:,Website:  Supply of Furniture items 

M/s. Chandavarkar & Thacker Architects Pvt Ltd 7, Palace Cross Road, Bangalore 560 020. Tel: 080-3342101/3341002/3346005,Fax: (080)3442044 Architect

Niranjan G. & Associates  FF1, Business Point,137, Brigade Road, Bangalore 560 025 Tel: 080-2294918.E-mail: Providing and installation of false ceiling, partition and furniture 

V3 Engineers Pvt Ltd # 18/3, Ali Asker Road, Off. Cunningham Road,Bangalore- 560 052.Tel: 080-2286287 Fax: 2286323.E-mail: Supply & Installation of workstation, Key Board Trays, CPU Trolley, etc.

M/s. S. S. Engineers # 69, Emberumanar Nilayam, 19th Main Road,J P Nagar, 5th Phase, Near Sai Pushpanjali,Kalyana Mantapa, Bangalore - 560 078.Tel: 080-6592382/6592383 E-mail: Supply & Installation of Electrical items

M/s. Siemens Ltd ICN - EN Division No. 84, Keonics Electronics City Hosur Road, Bangalore 561 229 Supply & Installation of EPABX System

Noble Sales Corporation # 306, 1st Floor, Cambridge Lay out, 1st Cross, Shirdi Sai Baba Mandir Road,Bangalore- 560 008 Tel: 080-5549180 Supply and Installation of Venetian Blinds 

M/s. Paliath Enterprises 307, Thimmiah Road, Bangalore- 560 051. Supply of Sofa sets,Dining Tables etc.


 “Our market share is approximately 10% and growth is 100% year on year basis”.

- Hemang Shah, Director, Anchor Group.


  What is the latest in-house wire technology today?

The latest in house wire technology is FR (Flame Retardant) and FRLS (Flame Retardant Low Smoke) cable. With the construction of high rise buildings in vogue with the concealed wiring, importance of safety against fire hazards caused by cable failure / short circuit is more than ever before. The devastating effect of fire is so great that for industrial installations and public places, FRLS cable of reputed and proven brand only should be used.

Halogen Free Flame Retardant (HFRR) wire is also available which is a different insulating material from the conventional PVC compound. It is fire resistant and does not emit halogen gases when it catches fire. However, it is 40-50% costlier than FRLS cable and there is no benefit in real terms as the PVC conduit / casing and capping used for installation are neither flame retardant nor non-smoking.

Most importantly, great advancement has been made in manufacturing techniques with PLC based quality control / monitor built in the process. Wire drawing has in-line annealer which gives bright, uniform and full annealing unlike conventional annealing that is from batch to batch. We have multiwire drawing machines which can draw 8 or 16 wires simultaneously, annealed and wound in a group which in subsequent bunching operation gives a better conductor with almost zero elongation / breakages or kinked wire resulting in a conductor with greater flexibility, dimensional accuracy and better conductivity.



What is your range of products?

We manufacture FR and FRLS PVC insulated house wire in solid, stranded and multistrand flexible conductors upto 16mm2 . We are shortly introducing LAN, co-axial, telephone and fire survival cable so as to cater to the needs of building with the complete range of cables.



What are your sales figures and yearly growth?

Our market share is approx 10% and growth is 100% year on year basis.



How should a consumer make an informed choice ?

As far as house wire is concerned making the right choice could really be difficult for an un-informed customer. An un-informed customer’s confusion is further compounded by a plethora of unbranded local cheap wires with questionable quality claims. The choice for the right cable should be made basically on quality considerations since the total cost of house wire in a building project is about 3%-4%

For manufacturing PVC house wire, two materials only - copper and PVC compound are required. A good quality wire will be produced by using only electrolytic grade, copper of 99.99% purity and virgin PVC compound. For your information, out of scores of well-known brands and hundred of ISI marked manufacturers only Anchor along with two other manufacturers have been taken in as partners by ICPCI (International Copper Promotion Council-India) in their copper building wire project. ICPCI is the Indian arm of ICA (International Copper Association) to promote beneficial use of copper worldwide. ICPCI partners’ quality of house wire is certified by ICPCI for being electrolytic grade.

The consumer must know that, un-organised sector uses Commercial grade or re-cycled copper that has poor conductivity further, they use undersized wire, less than required number of strands, not annealed at all or partially annealed which further reduces the conductivity and makes it more prone to breakage by bending. Such a conductor will get overheated leading to short circuits and reducing the circuitry life. Further, PVC insulation is a low grade but more often re-processed PVC available at a cheaper price. Also the customer is cheated on length. Wire coils from unorganized sector are invariably short in length anywhere between 2% to 5%.



What are the challenges that the industry is facing?

The challenges faced by the industry mainly are:

a) Un-organized sector uses under sized recycled copper and reprocessed PVC from scrap. In a study conducted by ICPCI, use of recycled copper in house wire results in conductor resistance of twice as much as that of electrolytic grade. This causes an energy loss of a mind boggling 41.65 billion kw hrs (units) per year in the country and the monetary loss is around Rs. 166.6 billion. Now think of tremendous gains that the country will make if only high purity electrolytic grade copper is used in house wire.


b) The lack of awareness amongst the people to use good quality house wire for safety and long term economy. There has to be collective effort by the industry to educate the people to appreciate the little higher cost of ISI marked standard product against the attendant risks of using cheaper cables.

c) Government bodies should adopt copper wiring instead of Aluminium which, through cheaper has many disadvantages.



How big is the house wire industry [organized and unorganized sector] and how much is the industry losing out from the unorganized market [ percentage & figures] ?

30,000 m t of copper consumption / annum or 2,500 m t / month which translates into 50-70 crores of sales value per month. On a rough estimate 60 %. equivalent to approx 18,000 m t of copper consumption lost out to the unorganised sector.


 “We are an ISO 9001 company”.

- N K Sabharwal - (V P MKTG), Paramount.


  What is the latest in cable technology today?

Optical Fiber Cable, Coaxial Cable.



What is your range of products?

We are one of the leading manufacturers of 1.1 K V power cables, control cables, instrumentation cables, thermocouple compensating cables, railway signalling cables, railway axle counter (4 quad and 6 quad dry core and jelly filled type), jelly filled telecommunication cables, optical fibre cables, etc.



What is your sales figures area wise and product-wise?

Turn over for the year 2000-2001 is Rs. 163 Cr.



How should a consumer make an informed choice?

We are an ISO 9001 company that shows we give quality items. We have the approval of top Indian companies like BHEL, NTPC, Power Grid, etc. We can offer material as per national, international or consumer’s specifications.



With the fillip being given by the centre to power projects how do you foresee the future of the industry?

By doing so, the future of the industry is very bright especially for cable manufacturing. Major power projects need cables to run the projects. Cable industries depend on power projects to the extent of 70%.



What are the problems that the industry is facing?

The requirement for cables (especially for cables used in power, refineries and industrial sector) reduced due to delay in projects and current economic scenario of industries.



Any suggestions for improvements?

We should concentrate on quality products so that we are able to compete at the national and international level. Quality, price and delivery all have scope for improvement.




 RPG Cables Limited

  RPG Cables Limited is one of the leading manufacturers of power and telecommunication cables in India, and is a part of the RPG Enterprises, the 4th largest industrial house in the country. The group has interests in- power generation, transmission and distribution, tyres, communications, retail and life sciences. RPG as a group is poised to take advantage of the current policies of the govt. of India, which has opened up exciting opportunities for private investment in the power/ telecom sector. RPG Cables was formed subsequent to the merger of 3 RPG group companies viz. Asian Cables and Industries Limited, RPG Telecom Limited, and Upcom Cables Limited. With this merger, the company has been able to synergies its strengths, resources and expertise, thereby successfully coming to the forefront of the cable industry. The company is accredited with ISO 9001/ ISO 14001 certification and collectively manufactures the widest range of cables in the country.


The product profile includes:



Power cables-

The range includes XLPE insulated cables from 1.1 kV upto 132 kV, PVC insulated power and control cables, paper insulated lead sheathed cables upto 33 kV, elastomer cables upto 11 kV and Speciality cables viz. nyvin and uninyvin, aircraft cables, ship lead wiring cables, fluoropolymer insulated cables, etc.



Extra high voltage cables

- Steps are being initiated to upgrade extra high voltage (EHV) facilities from 132 kV to 220 kV. Have a record of highest kms of EHV cables supplied in the country.



Jelly filled telephone cables

- The range includes telephone cables from 10 pairs to 2400 pair cables in various conductor sizes.



Electrical wires

- these cables are with fire retardant property and will meet the demand gap, which exist todayfor quality cables.



Optical fibre cables

- the product range offered is from 2 fibres to 216 fibres in single mode as well as multimode.Datacom cables- they cater to datacom cables manufactured by BrandRex, UK, for effective networking solution.

Due to the company’s contributions, initiatives and major successes in some of the overseas markets, the company was recognised as a “Star Trading House” by govt. of India, Ministry of Commerce, and Directorate General of Foreign Trade.



RPG Cables Limited,

Ceat Mahal, 463, Dr. A. B Rd.,

Worli,Mumbai – 400 025.

Tel: 4937244. Fax: 022-4930206.

E-mail: sales@rpgcables.comWeb:



 Estimation using IT solutions

  Software solutions facilitate utilizing historical data on construction costs, which is perhaps the biggest power derived from it. Without this power, it would have been difficult due to quantum of efforts involved in creating meaningful information out of the data available. says Sanjay Lala - Project Manager HCC Infotech Ltd.


Estimation activity can be carried out at three stages in a project life cycle:


1.Conceptual/ Design estimate: During project conceptualization and feasibility study, different types of estimates like screening estimates or preliminary estimates (also called quick estimates) are made. These are done using the empirical or statistical approach. At a later stage in the design phase, detailed estimates are prepared using production function and allotment of joint cost. Databases of past jobs priced BOQs (Bill of Quantities) can give us data, which is statistically analyzed on certain determinant parameters to work out the closest possible quick costing. Determinant based averaging provides more accurate results as compared to plain average or thumb rule figures. Quick estimation software can help the estimator to work out the most appropriate equipment methodology.


2.Bid estimate: Between different organizations the approach to bid costing differs from a pure empirical approach, (easiest & fastest) to unit costing method, which is laborious, but more accurate. This estimate also forms a critical component of the financial projections for the project life cycle; hence its accuracy is critical to ensure success.


With computerization, the tediousness of this process has been reduced to a considerable extent. It is often said that the skill is not in winning all the good jobs, but not winning that one bad job which can wean away all the profits from the good jobs done. The indicator of a good bid is not whether it is won or lost, but on how low the variance was, when the job was executed. Good bid estimation software use a judicious mix of production function approach (for job operation costing), unit costs (using material assemblies) & joint cost allocation for indirect cost allocation.


3.Budget estimates:

Budget estimates are prepared during project execution for maintaining control on costs. Detailed estimates prepared at the bid stage can form the basis of budgeting. The budget estimates need to be revised periodically. A cost variance generated at various milestones in the project life cycle would help assess the accuracy of the bid estimate, budget estimate, and would also help to improve accuracy of estimation.


Advantages of using software solutions for bid estimation


a. Use of historical data for costing

Software solutions facilitate utilizing historical data on construction costs, which is perhaps the biggest power derived from it. Without this power, this would have been difficult due to quantum of efforts involved in creating meaningful information out of the data available. For example, while estimating on a project, software enables you to search past purchase orders and select those matching certain criteria, for example- quality specification, vendor, location, period, or a logical combination of these. From the selected information, the estimator can pick up the required values for costing, and use these as-it-is or with a suitable multiplier for costing.


b.Faster turnaround of bids

Faster bid turnaround is achieved by re-using the assemblies, and automation of manual, repetitive activities involved in bid estimation.


c.Higher predictability and repeatability

Picking up values from the database based on defined constraints means that every time similar search criteria are provided, the costs picked up would be the same. Therefore, an unpredictable activity like estimation can also become more repeatable in nature.


d.Better Risk Analysis capability

Risks are recorded during tender appreciation and different case scenarios are worked out by attributing values to these risks. Additionally, a list of common risks is maintained and based on applicability are selected for the project, thus reducing the possibility of missing out potential risks.


e.Accurate cash flows & finance costing

Finance costing is an inherently iterative process. Once the direct and indirect costs are attributed to the BOQ items, cash flow is worked out and based on the negative cash flow, finance required and cost thereof is calculated. This cost is to be loaded on the BOQ and will change the cash flow. While calculating manually, it is not feasible to carry out more than 1~2 iterations, whereas while using software, it is possible to carry out multiple iterations, and select the optimum finance cost, which will be the one when the differential financial cost loaded approaches zero.



 Construction World at CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2002, Las Vegas, USA


  CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2002 has already set a record as our largest event ever, surpassing the total with 1.732 million net square feet used as against 1.7 million in the 1999 Show. Here is a comparison of exhibit space sales as of March 12:

CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2002 gathered more than 111,000 industry professionals looking for the latest equipment, materials, products, services, and innovations.

The previous CONEXPO-CON/AGG Show, held in 1999, featured over 1,880 exhibitors covering 1.7 million net square feet of space and was visited by more than 124,000 attendees from around the world. The Show was ranked #1 as the largest U.S. trade show of all industries held in 1999.

Construction World, the only magazine exhibiting two editions- India and Gulf- visited the exhibition with a two member team and reached out to Chairmen and CEOs of the WORLD’S BIGGEST COMPANIES in Construction Equipment. Here are the excerpts from the meetings, which ensued…

Sir Anthony Bamford, Chairman & Managing Director, JCB, instantly connected with us and took us to an exclusive chamber to discuss his plans in India.

“ The Escorts partnership goes back 20 years and although we do not have any other partnership in the world other than EJCB, we have no problems in maintaining this relationship. I see great scope in India and I find it more meaningful to be there than in China. Most of my competitors who have ventured into China by forming partnerships have yet to earn money. In comparison, India projects a positive growth. I find the legal system a great boon and over a period of time, we intend to build up the base in India to go beyond its borders and we are already sourcing components. We are quite hopeful of a good growth in the Indian markets. In the Middle East, we are dealing with the Galadhari group and we intend to send in a couple of JCB personnel soon for stepping up the marketing efforts.”

The chairman of Caterpillar Inc. Glen Barton enthused the gathering by stating that US $ 1.3 trillion was going to be spent in the next five years on infrastructure in the USA.

Gerald Shaheen, Group President, stated, “Caterpillar believes in offering the entire range of options to those in the industry that have the courage to be in it- by offering financial products for financing equipment, rentals, used equipment- plus after sales support.” Glen Barton in an exclusive interview to Contruction World stated in a question posed to him that “the Indian operation is getting set to operate in the next 12 to 18 months”(although market reports suggest 6 months).He further elaborated, “We will launch improved and upgraded products in the Indian market!” The company a US$ 20 billion company makes a net profit of US$ 800 million and forecasts a flat growth this year. Gerald Shaheen, Group President, was enthusiastic about the efforts in India.

In response to our question to Hitachi regarding the role of Tatas -answered by Japanese senior executive Kichi Ushibayashi- in developing the overseas markets, Ushibayachi responded that the license agreement did not envisage any territory other than India and Tatas are independently pursuing exports of equipment produced by them. Hitachi announced the launch of its ZAXIS series and the phase out of its EX series. The ZAXIS series products combine the use of intelligence for enhancement of performance. Hitachi’s turnover from construction equipment was stated to be approximately US$ 4 billion.

Construction World had an exclusive interview with Herbert Henkel- Chairman & CEO, Ingersoll Rand. Well experienced in understanding the Indian mindset, he stated that he decided to create a set up that is conducive to building leadership.

“I did not want the Indian operation to be treated an “outpost” and I just wished to communicate to all members of the Indian team that I was “just a flight away”. I have worked in different capacities during my tenure in dealing with Delhi way back in the early eighties. I have seen the need for us to use the company as a global machine and hence had 40 engineers working as a design team in Bangalore, who have had the experience of interacting with their counterparts in USA. The Indian team takes over from the US team as the day progresses from US to India. This way the design work turns around much sooner , besides enhancing the quality of work put in as improvisations take place. Our Indian unit already produces some components used in the US. A compactor too is being designed out of our Bangalore operations. I am very proud of our team built in IR India. Henkel informed us about the new opportunity, which would unfold in India soon- of transportation with cold storage facilities. Once the roads improve, the next intelligent step is to save the wastage in perishable food items.


Glenville da Silva, GM, from India posed with the latest launch in pavers, and was proud of his achievements. Glenville agreed with to our belief that it was now for our side of the world to grow. Glenville also updated us on the road development institute “Raasta” and confirmed that, that was the way the Road Institute was also set up in the USA. Glenville also informed that the Bobcat machines were being imported and reported very good growth last year. Tony Araman, Marketing Manager, International Road Machinery Division, took us through the changes in the “cab” thereby ‘spoiling’ the operator with all the comforts for riding the machine.

Construction World met with Leif Johansson, President & CEO, Volvo who said. “We have earmarked the upper end products which are highly sophisticated and technical. We have seen a limited success with that move as the market is beginning to show some maturity. We have manufacturing facilities at Nashville, Sweden and Bangalore. Our Poland facility will be up by December 2002 where we will launch our backhoe loader.” Headed by Carl Lockwood who made an impressive presentation, Volvo has a lot riding on this new backhoe. He shied away from answering questions relating to the investment made in the backhoe.


Dave Ritchie,CEORitchie Bros Auctioneers, in an exclusive chat with Construction World stated,“There are only three markets, I believe, which will be the leading markets in the next twenty years- India, China & Argentina!” Ritchie Bros., an NYSE listed company, launched its internet bidding service. The rbauctionBid-Live service allows customers to follow the live auction, hear the auctioneer and place bids, all live and in real time. Customers who are unable to attend an auction or prefer not to travel, but have satisfied themselves as to the condition and value of a particular piece of equipment, can now place their bids on the internet and not miss the opportunity of acquiring it.

R.Clay Tippett, Marketing Manager, took us to the booth to view the live auction in progress and evinced an interest in our website

Real Estate

Policy changes- an eye-opener

  In the last five years, more than 4 ½ million sq.ft. of office space has been added to the suburbs of Mumbai, out of which a major chunk remains vacant today. Compare this with the fact that in the last four years, nearly one million sq.ft. of space was added in the island city- and was absorbed in virtually no time.


Land in Mumbai is very precious. If we see the land proportion ratio there is clearly a demand-supply mismatch. The government had restricted development of new office buildings in the island city in 1991 with the intention of decongesting the already burdened area. Evidently, supply side regulations have not quite yielded the results as were meant to. The main reason being, an unabated and distinct reference among companies for office locations in the island city. Even after the removal of restrictions on new office developments in the island city, the scarcity of land for new developments acts as a major constraint. Taking this in view the state government has proposed to allow the redevelopment of sick and closed textile mill lands. This being an important migration from hitherto adopted policy of restricting development, in that it would release significant quantum of land for development of new office space in the island city. The revised development control rules of 1991 permitted surplus mill land to be sold and used for cotton textile mills and other purposes such as industrial, residential and commercial. However, during mid- 1990s, the state government put a restriction on sale and redevelopment of such land. On March 20, 2001, the Urban Development Department directed the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) to introduce detailed guidelines and rules for redevelopment of these mills. Central Mumbai, primarily an industrial area till recently, houses 54 such textile mills, occupying approximately 25 million sq.ft. of prime land in the island city. It is expected that a large quantum of this land supply would enter the Mumbai real estate market in the form of commercial, residential, retail and hotel developments. With a high demand for newer and better office buildings throughout Mumbai, especially in the island city locations, there is an urgent need to redevelop these lands for commercial purposes. So far, certain textile mills such as Piramal mills, Kamala mills, phoenix mills, New Great Eastern mills, etc. have been redeveloped, diverting about 4 million sq.ft. of land for new construction. The impact of the proposed revised mill land policy can be judged by the fact that if the entire mill land in Central Mumbai enters the market, the size of the office stock in Central Mumbai may even exceed that of Nariman Point, the CBD.


Some of the major policy changes:


Lifting of ban on redevelopment of cotton textile mills.


Multi-mills aggregation by common owner will be allowed to ensure integrated redevelopment of surplus land and FSI, instead of piece-meal application of development regulation on every mill.


Permitted usage would also include residential and commercial usage.


For sick and closed mills-


1/3 rd of open land and balance FSI to be used for public housing and mill workers housing, as against complete allocation to MHADA earlier.


1/3 rd to be used by mill owner and balance earmarked for recreation ground.


TDR generated from recreation ground may be utilized by owner in-situ, which was not allowed earlier.


For mills under modernization- 30% of surplus land may be redeveloped, as against 15% earlier.


While these policy changes would lead to substantial additions to commercial, retail and residential stock, there is a danger that this may result in haphazard developments without taking into account micro-level infrastructure issues such as roads, water, sewage services an open spaces. Development of mill land, however, is foreseeable over the medium to long term. To ease the pressure on supply in the interim, the government has allowed use of residential and industrial premises in the island city for office purposes. This would enable companies to set up offices in residential buildings (having permission for ground floor retail usage) and industrial premises, without the necessity for rezoning or change of usage.



If the approval process for redevelopment of mills gathers momentum during 2002, large supply of new office space from this redevelopment and other industrial land in Central Mumbai would start entering the market in approximately three years, which would put downward pressure on rental and capital values, thereby containing prices in the island city. In the long run, this would impact prices in suburban office micro-markets, such as Andheri. New supply in the island city would tend to dampen prices in these locations, especially in the non-prime segment.





April 2002 onwards

  Exhibitions, conferences & seminars from the month of April (2002) onwards.



1 4th International Symposium on Concrete  Apr 21-24,2002

 Ghent, Belgium  Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research

2 Holzbau und Ausbau 2002 April 25-28 2002  Nurnberg Germany NurnbergMesse


3 17th International Conference of the Pre-cast Concrete Industry BIBM 2002 May 1-4,2002 Istanbul, Turkey Istanbul Convention Centre

4 World Conference on concrete materials and structures May 14-16 2002 Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia WCC, Faculty of Civil Engineering 

5 2nd Tunnel & Perforzioni  May 16-19,2002 Modena, Italy Progetto M International

6 Trade Fair International Building & Construction Trade Fair May 21-24,2002 Shanghai, China World Exhibition Services

7 Roadware 2002 May 28-30,2002 Prague, Czech Repulic Czech Road Society

8 Waterfront & Marina Development - International exhibition & conference  June 2002  Dubai, UAE  Media Generation Events Limited 

9 Earthcon 2002 June 22-24 2002 Ahmedabad India Winners Marketing

10 1st International Conference on Bridge Maintenance July 14-16,2002 Barcelona,Spain IABMAS

11 5th International conference on space structures  Aug 19-21,2002 Surrey, UK Space Structures Research Centre, University of Surrey

12 IRF Asia Pacific Roads Conference and Exhibition 2002 Sept 1-5,2002 Sydney,Australia Australian Roads Federation

13 BauconIndia 2002 Sept 4-7,2002 Pragati Maidan Exhibition Ctr.,New Delhi Messe Munchen International and Tafcon Projects India Pvt. Ltd

14 Towards a better built environment-Innovations,sustainability, Information Technology Sept 11-13,2002 Zurich, Switzerland IABSE

15 International Seminar on Steel and Composite Bridges Sept 22-23, 2002  Mumbai Indian Institution of Bridge Engineers

16 Interiors & Buildex Show Sept 23-26,2002 Oman Intl.,Exhibition Ctr.Muscat Omanexpo LLC 

17 Gulf Traffic 2002 Conference and Exhibition Oct 22-25,2002 New Airport Exhibition Centre,Dubai. IIR Exhibition Dubai

18 bauma China 2002 Nov 5-8, 2002 Shanghai New International Expo Center, Shanghai Pudong Messe Munchen Germany 

19 Electrical China 2002 Nov 13-16,2002 Beijing Adsales Exhibition Services Ltd, Hong Kong

20 EP China 2002 Nov 13-16, 2002. Beijing Adsales Exhibition Services Ltd, Hong Kong

21 Construction China 2002 Nov 13-16,2002. Beijing Adsales Exhibition Services Ltd, Hong Kong

22 Building China 2002 Nov 13-16,2002. Beijing Adsales Exhibition Services Ltd, Hong Kong

23 World of Asphalt 2003 Mar 18-20,2003 Nashville, Tennessee, USA NAPA, CONEXPO-CON/AGG Show Management Services






1)Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Technologie Park, Zwijnaarde 9, B-9052, Ghent, Belguim. Tel: 0032 9 264 5518, Fax: 0032 9 214 5845, E-mail:




2)NurnbergMesse, Roland Kast, Andrea Kalrait and Elke Bachmann. Tel: +49(0) 911.86 06-81 08, -81 69, -82 42. Fax: +49 (0) 911.86 06-82 58. E-mail:  Website:




3)Yapi-Endustri Merezi, The Building & Industry Centre, Cumburiyet Cad 329 Harbiye –80230, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: 0090 212 2193939, Fax: 0090 212 2256623, E-mail:




4)WCC M S 2002 Conference secretariat, Faculty of Civil Engineering, MARA University of Technology, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Tel: 603 55163877, Fax: 603 551 92394,




5)Progetto M International, Fax: +39 051 891310




6)World Exhibition Services, Fax: +862162557740 Website:




7)Agentura Viaco, Fax: +420 2 2056 1456




8)Media Generation Events Limited, Hammerain House, Hookstone Avenue, Harrogate HG2 8ER, UK. Tel: +44 7753 817 813, Fax: +44 1423 873 999,




9)Winners Marketing, 305, Lalbhai Chambers, Gusa Parekh Pole, Manek Chowk, Ahmedabad – 380 001 (Guj.). Tel: 0091-079-2113369, 2110957, 2148132. Fax: 0091-079-2110957, 2113369. Mobile: 098250 22939. E-mail:,




10)IABMAS, Fax: +34 93 401 6517 Website: cimne,




11)Space Structures Research Centre, Dr. P. Disney, Conference Secretary, Dept. of Civil Engg, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.




12)Roads Conference Managers, Fax: +61 2 9262 3135, E-mail: ,


13)Tafcon Projects Pvt. Ltd., C-60, Nizamuddin East New Delhi- 110 013 India Phone [+91 11] 4 35 2141 Fax [+91 11] 435 5215




14)IABSE secretariat, Sissel Niggeler, Marketing and Communication Manager, IABSE secretariat, ETH Honggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich.




15)Er.A.R.Jambekar, Hon. Sr.Jt. Secretary of IIBE Addl.Chief Engineer, CIDCO Ltd, CBD Belapur, New Mumbai, Tel: 757 0505. Fax: 757 1066 Res 832 1325




16)Omanexpo LLC, P.O. Box 20, P.C, 117, Al Wadi Al Kabir, Sultanate of Oman, Tel: 968] 790333 Fax: [968] 706276




17)IIR Exhibitions Dubai, Fax: +971 4 336 0137,




18)Messe - Munchen Gmbh Messegearde, 81823, Munchen, Germany. Tel: [+4989] 949 - 01 Fax: [+4989] 949 - 09 ,




19)Adsales Exhibition Services Ltd., 4/f , Stanhophone, 734 King’s Road, Northpoint, Hongkong. Tel: 852-28118897




20)NAPA, CONEXPO-CON/AGG Show Management Services, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, Tel: 800-355-6635,301-562-5384, 414-298-4152, Fax: 800-979-3365, 301-587-3182, 414-272-2672,



Bisazza - Premium slabs and tiles

  At Bisazza innovation is a tradition. Today, Bisazza stands as the continuator of distinguished cultural heritage, both by preserving ancient techniques of mosaic decoration and introducing new ones through technological advancement. Now, through their passion for reviving ancient agglomeration techniques a revolution is created- metron and logos. Premium slabs and tiles developed to ultimate perfection from glass aggregate that exhibit outstanding properties- resistance to chemicals, high durability, impermeability, thinness of slabs and low weight. Bisazza’s unique technology has achieved the golden mean- beauty of glass and strength to withstand wear and tear of day to day living which makes metron and logos suitable for a variety of interior and exterior cladding applications such as, floors, walls, pillars, exterior facade cladding, etc. However, the sheer beauty, finish and feel of metron and logos are simply amazing.



Logos is obtained by mixing glass granules of different colours, held together by an organic amalgam. Apart from various interior and exterior cladding applications logos can be used for creating trademarks. Logos has been designed by Atelier Mendini and is available in slab sizes up to 1200 mm x 3000 mm.



Metron is manufactured by mixing granules of avventurina and glass of different colours, which are held together by an organic amalgam. Avventurina, which lends a particularly precious quality to this product, is a stone created through a process dating to the 16th century. The unique features are: thin, lightweight slabs, highly durable, resistant to chemicals, maintenance-free, wide range of sizes and colours. The applications: ideal for floors, wall and pillars, exterior facade cladding, counter tops.



 Bottled water dispenser cum refrigerator

  India’s largest air-conditioning and commercial refrigeration company- Blue Star, has launched a sleek and stylish bottled water dispenser cum refrigerator – a product that combines hygiene, style and convenience for drinking water needs. It’s an all-in-one machine that dispenses water the way you want, the way you prefer. Cold water, water at room temperature and even hot water for making tea and coffee. It also has an inbuilt refrigerator for storing cold drinks, canned juices and chocolates. Being extremely compact, and the elegant plastic front panel and faucets make it aesthetically attractive. Blue Star, the market leaders in the water-cooling segment, have been marketing bottled water dispensers for over five years. This latest innovative product from the leaders in cooling solutions is mainly targeted at small offices, showrooms, industrial galas, etc.


 MagiCool 200S

  MagiCool from Whirlpool makes the environment refreshingly cool in a matter of minutes. It raises the fan speed to the highest and compressor capacity to its maximum, resulting in super-quick cooling. Designed to withstand the hottest of Indian summers and weather extremes, the tropicalised super cooling rotary compressor ensures that MagiCool works effortlessly to keep the room cool, irrespective of voltage fluctuations with minimum electricity consumption. It ensures clean, healthy and pure air, due to its unique 4-stage air purification system. By drawing out all the heat from the room, the unique super cooling system ensures a spirit of winter, even in the height of summer. As the night gets cooler, MagiCool’s sleep function senses the temperature of the room and automatically reduces cooling.



Rodas - Reduce, Recycle, Reuse!

  An enviromentalists delight and a treat to the eco-friendly, Rodas – a designer ecotel hotel situated in the Hiranandani complex, Powai - has enthusiastically endeavoured to live by its credo of reduce, recycle and reuse in the construction of the hotel.


  The name of the hotel has its origin in Sanskrit, and is pronounced “Row-Dus”. The word itself signifies a place where the earth meets heaven. Two companies, each, back the hotel, a giant in its core activity. Rodas is owned by the Hiranandani Group, who are the premier real estate developers of India, with interests in construction, retailing, infotech, education, agriculture and hospitality. Rodas is managed by Concept Hospitality, a division of the Kamath Group, engaged in the business of hospitality development and management. Rodas, a designer ECOTEL hotel, is committed towards ensuring total dedication to conserve environment by continually and enthusiastically creating awareness through education and participation of team members, guests and the community.

As an environment friendly hotel Rodas has applied itself to conservation in various ways.

Architecture (Passive Energy Conservation Efforts in Design)


The Façade


Depressions and protrusions in the façade play an important role since majority of the dead walls remain under shadow thereby reducing the surface radiation.



The Plan Configuration

The building is positioned in such a manner that the centre point of its parabolic shape faces the north- east, hence reducing the direct sunlight there by reducing electricity consumption, by way of less air conditioning and lighting.



Roof Top

The roof top is treated with 3 layers of coba( clay brick) , which is a natural resource. This acts as an insulator from heat and noise, thus reducing air conditioning load.



Civil Work


To start at the very beginning the cement that has gone into making Rodas an eco friendly Hotel is absolutely environment friendly. This cement, PPC (Portland Pozzalana Cement) contains 15-20% fly ash, as compared to OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) and is used for finishings of the exterior plaster, block masonry, tiling and flooring.

For concreting works the hotel has used cementitions products like fly ash, GBFS (Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ) etc, which help reduce the atmospheric pollution. Fly ash is a by- product of Electric power generation, and 26% of the same is used in PPC.

This also brings down the production of cement, which results in reducing pollution.



At RODAS we believe in the three “R” theory of reduce, reuse, recycle. Water being one of the earth’s most precious resources and vital to life we have tried to put this theory in practice by taking special care to conserve this resource by employing carefully planned techniques enlisted below, which re-establishes our belief in the above theory.

Aerators/Flow Restrictors

All taps contain special aerators, which increase the water’s force and reduce outflow, saving water. Using these aerators saves upto 50% of water. In addition they also have taps operating on timers.



Cisterns and Flushes

An other ingenious water saving device is the concealed cistern, which uses only 6 litres of water per flush as against 15-20 litres used in conventional flushes.



Sewage Treatment Plant

Wastewater is also recycled. The hotel’s sewage system is connected to the main treatment plant of the Hiranandani gardens, where, with the latest technology, wastewater is treated and then reused in areas like the air conditioning, gardening and for new constructions within the complex.



Drinking Water Treatment

A central chilled water system, purified using ultra violet rays ensure sterilised water and removes the need for 8 water coolers in various outlets.



Rubber Wood

Despite its natural timber look, the master control panel in the guestrooms and shutters are made from Rubber wood. After producing rubber sap, the tree is cut down, and the same cannot be used for any constructive purpose, as the wood acquired from the rubber tree is soft. The rubber wood then derived is processed to ensure dimensional stability.


Nuwud Mdf (Medium Density Fibre Wood)

If you are the superstitious kind then there is no place here where you will be able to say “touch wood”!


This is because the interior works of the Hotel are made from MDF, which is manufactured using cotton stalks. The cotton tree, which grows to a height of 5-6 feet, is cut down after yield and the same is usually rendered useless. With the help of advanced technology, the waste stalks of the cotton tree then goes through a manufacturing process which includes chipping, sieving, washing and cooking of the fibre chips. After this lengthy procedure Medium Density Fibre Wood is produced having all the features of natural wood.


Double Glazed Windows

The double glazed window comprises of a hermetically sealed double glazed unit. This double glazed window blocks the heat of the sun from entering the room and helps in conserving the air-conditioning energy. An added advantage of this unit is that it prevents fabric and furniture colours from fading, as the glazed unit prevents the infra red light from the sun from entering the room. These windows also help in effectively cutting out noise pollution.



Efforts have been made not only to reduce solid waste and conserve water but also to save energy:


Pl Lamps/Fluorescent Tubes

The hotel uses energy efficient PL lamps, which provide as much light as ordinary bulbs, yet consume substantially less energy. To cite an example: using a 10W PL lamp will give an equal amount of brightness as a 60W incandescent bulb whereas the former (PL lamp) will have a power consumption of 25% of that of the latter.


Morever, since room lights come on, only when the key card is inserted there’s no chance that lights or the air conditioner remains on once the occupant has left.


Mini Bars

Mini bars used in the guestrooms save upto 40% energy, as they are equipped with “fuzzy logic” which senses the load inside the refrigerator and cools it accordingly. Also an added advantage is that these mini bars are CFC free.




Ozone depletion levels have been reduced to 99.55% as the hotel has used the more eco-friendly alternative i.e. R22 instead of CFC refrigerants. The mono screw chillers which have the least number of moving parts operates on a stepless efficiency range of 10% to 100%.

All other refrigeration including walk-in cooler, deep freezer, etc. uses 134 A and 404 A gases , which are environmentally friendly.


Hot Water

The hot water at 500C comes as a by- product of the air conditioning plant, and the heat pumps act as a back- up during winters. A boiler, is not used, hence no consumption of HSD (high speed diesel).



Master control panel

This control panel in the guestrooms incorporates a unique feature known as the green button. On pressing the green button the thermostat of the air-conditioning unit is stepped up by two degrees. The saving in electricity resulting from the 2 degrees increase in temperature is translated into rupee terms and the same is displayed on the guest folio and profile. A certificate is then issued to the guest who has voluntarily participated in conserving energy.



The hotel has two restaurants Parabola and Zwigs. Parabola, the 24-hour south east Asian and continental cuisine restaurant, which provides delightfully decorated dining space also offers a very reasonably priced buffet spread on weekends and festive days. The name derives from the shape of the building and the ambience, including the uniforms and the interiors that guarantee a treat for any occasion. But, the heart of Rodas is Zwigs a trendy place. It has a lot to offer than merely throbbing music and mesmerizing cocktails. Attached to a spacious pool and snooker room, a 6 lane-bowling centre and a huge and highly popular Hakone entertainment parlour, it is a place where service is done on roller skates and hunky bartenders juggle with élan and an attitude. Vibrant, informal and distinctly trendy in its style of operations this pub spreads over 12,000 sq. ft. of fun filled ambience.



Following Rodas's example of conserving, preserving & utilising resources, could be one that many would do well to follow. Project Details

Name & Add of Architects / Designers 

Rodas & Parabola: Mr. Hafeez Contractor,29, Bank Street,Sonawala Bldg.1st Flr.Opp. Voltas International, Mumbai.Phone: 266 0556 / 1920.


Cost of Project: Rs.10 cr.

Zwigs: Mr. Vivek Verma,#3, Gateway Plaza, Hiranandani Gardens, Powai, Mumbai- 76. Tel: 70 2267 / 570 8528

Cost of Project: Rs. 4 cr.

Names of other contractors: Rodas and Parabola:

Interiors For rooms and Parabola: Chitsons 26/2 d Kachwadi, Govandi, Mumbai -88.Tel: 5516863

Interiors For guestrooms: Garnet Interior Decorators 110, Saptashrungi,2nd Floor, Matoshri sankul, Rees, Dist: Raigad. Tel: 02192 - 51677.

Light Fittings: La’ Lustre 7, Veena industrial Estate,Link Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai-53. Tel: 634 7358.

Energy efficient chokes: Pamba Electronic Systems Pvt Ltd.,1/40, Kureekkad, Ernakulam, Kerala.Tel: 0484711129

Air- con equipment: Ciat (France), Thierry Rochaix, Tel: 33 479 42 42 20

Electrics : Reflections,S.V. Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai -400 102.Tel: 679 8268.

Plumbing : Delux Sanitations

Carpets: Nalinkant & Company,17 / 19 Princess Street, Mumbai - 400 002.Tel: 201 7576.

Curtains : Harmony Fabrics,73, WTC Mumbai -5, Tel: 2185698



 "The Indian Planning Commission has approved the issue of Rs. 200 crore equity for the Rs. 400 crore Sky Bus Project in Mumbai”.

"The Indian Planning Commission has approved the issue of Rs. 200 cr

  For 57 year old Rajaram Bojji Irse,  Managing Director of the Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL), a veritable icon who has managed to synergize the benefits of engineering expertise and booming information technology, to create, execute and install marvellous designs in the field of Transportation Infrastructure, the sky is the limit !Now KRCL has gone beyond the state- of-the-art,  superbly crafted tunneling techniques - on the  760 km route between Mumbai to Udipi and on the 92 km long Mumbai-Pune Expressway as well for speedy connections - by introducing the 'Raksha Kavach,’ an  Anti-Collision Safety Device designed by Rajaram, actually his crowning glory. 

  Acknowledged by experts as one which could have offered protection against the September 11 attacks on the WTC, the US Federal Administration on Aviation, has appointed a committee to study this device and its security benefits. Really on the fast track to total development, this technocrat has been invited to present his paper on Sky Bus Transportation at the Second International Conference, of the American Society of Civil Engineers, held from 14-18 April 2002 in Washington. Moreover, the Indian Planning Commission has approved the issue of Rs. 200 cr. equity for the Rs. 400 cr. Sky Bus Project in Mumbai, ready to take off in the next four months. In an exclusive interview with CONSTRUCTION WORLD’S special correspondent Hema G. Lobo, Rajaram takes us round the bend for a clear vision of the future of ’intelligent’ transport, which is not only speedy and safe but free of cost for passengers.


You have recently returned from the Asia-Pacific Rail Conference, at Hong Kong, jointly organized by Kowloon-Canton Rail Corporation Ltd., MTR Hong Kong, Accenture, RMJM of Hong Kong, Land Transport Authority of Singapore as well as Indonesian and Vietnam Railway Corporations.  What was your experience?

This conference was attended by 14 Asian nations all of which are keen on pro-active participation in the new millenium projects.


What is the outstanding progress made by KRCL and yourself which you shared at this conference ?

Every participating nation at this conference realized that there is a great paradigm shift in which every nation is looking out for new transportation systems which are speedy and safe, maintenance free and economical and futuristic enough to take care of rapidly growing urban populations. We presented cutting edge technologies which would improve operation ratio from 70% to96% .This would be possible through Controlled train operations and management systems; use of ‘Raksha Kavach’, an anti-collision device (making for an intelligent locomotive); use of ‘Satdham’ safety system for stations for knowledge based wire-free control system for train reception and train despatch, (intelligent stations); and ‘Roshan’ a knowledge based, on-line, dynamic real-time analysis for health of speeding rolling stock, to identify and eliminate defective ones, much before any serious damage can occur, ballastless tracks - free from maintenance, total signalling solutions for absolute safety, geo-technical solutions especially for tunneling in difficult terrain and other practical solutions like truck on train for greater profitability.


Why do you say that there is a shift in paradigm in the world of rail transport ?

So far conventional methods of rail transport like the Surface Railway, Elevated Railway as well as the Underground Metro System have been used, with coaches carrying more steel than people, coaches which can derail or collide !  The Sky Bus technique based on the concept of Sky wheels presented in 1989 at the World Congress for Railway Research, offers lighter coaches which are derailment and collission proof, and with the frequency of a sky bus every 30 seconds it translates into 120 services per hour from 6 buses (a capacity of 150 per bus is equal to 900 people in one direction).  This system has the advantage of being non invasive on land as it is located 8 m. above the ground and since the cargo will be efficiently transported, one can dream of completely free travel for passengers in eco-friendly, totally safe and air-conditioned comfort.


Have foreign countries evinced interest in these innovations which KRCL has to offer ?

A special survey on the 900 million dollar Sky Bus project has been completed in Saudi Arabia and we are awaiting further developments. Indonesia and Bangladesh have both shown keen interest in the Sky Bus project, and so has Syria.  A Rs.12,000 crore MOU has been signed with Iraq.


Has KRCL been collaborating with foreign firms ?

It has been our policy to collaborate with outstanding local firms for our work, for example, the U.A.E. based Belhasa Group of Companies has actively collaborated in all our work in the Middle East.


Do these innovations mean a drop in employment?

Not at all.  The same ratio of 20 persons per km of transport applies except that the kind of people employed will have to have new skills as well, not needed so much for machine maintenance as much as for efficiency of total efficient solutions for the ultimate consumer.