DHARAVI REDEVELOPMENT PROJECT
The perils of urbanisation exist in the growth of slums or
what is called jhuggis in local slang. India is marching ahead
in its quest for a double digit growth rate for the last 4
to 5 years. Industrial and tertiary sector are attracting
more and more rural folks to the greener pastures of their
urban cousins. People from rural areas and smaller towns are
migrating to metro cities and the emerging growth centres
all across India. Due to inadequate housing and other related
infrastructure facilities in place. This leads to development
of small and large pockets of slums. These slums are generally
equipped with bare minimum means of meeting the needs of the
residents. Politicians exploit this phenomenon to build a
vote bank. Builders eye the same as an opportunity to cash
on in the future. The Government treat this as another speed
breaker in the path of development and a question mark on
their abilities to meet the basic minimum needs of its citizens.
Mumbai, the financial capital of India is plagued with the
problem of slum rehabilitation for more than a decade or so.
Around 50 to 60 per cent of 18 million plus population resides
in slums. Dharavi is one such slum pocket located in the heart
of Mumbai. Dharavi with more than half a million population
occupies more than 200 hectares of land and is located near
Mahim and Bandra and on its northern side flows the Mithi
river. Dharavi boasts of a mini economy, thriving small scale
industry comprising of mainly leather goods industry, garments
and plastic items. Due to lack of proper and adequate civic
amenities, it is a case for immediate and planned makeover.
The Government of Maharashtra has recognised the need for
the makeover way back in 2003, when it accepted the plan prepared
by Architect, Mukesh Mehta albeit with some modifications.
The GoM is implementing this project through the Slum Rehabilitation
Authority (SRA), according to the norms of S R Act of 1971.
Dharavi Re-development Project (DRP)
DRP as the name implies is about redevelopment of Dharavi.
The government proposes to use land as a resource for development
and use private developers for implementation of the scheme.
DRP objective is multi pronged. The first and foremost is
the rehabilitation of the slum developers in a self contained
225 sq ft carpet area tenement free of cost. The slum structure
existing as on 01/01/2000 are eligible for rehabilitation.
The cost of construction of the rehabilitation tenements is
cross subsidised from the sale of free sale tenements in the
The selected developer for DRP is entitled to free sale component
in proportion to the rehab component. A sum of Rs 20,000 per
tenement will be recovered from the developer for subsidising
the monthly maintenance of the building. Total developable
land is 146 hectares (61 per cent) and for rehab purposes
it’s 35 hectares (for 225 sq ft). The project guarantees
the rehabilitation of all the eligible existing residences,
commercial & industrial units.
Dharavi to be divided into five sectors
Dharavi development to be financially viable and self sustaining
Dharavi to be developed as an entire integrated suburb with
l Development is envisaged on the following five point program
called ‘HIKES’. 1) Health – State of the
art Health Care Centre. 2) Income – Income generation
through supporting the Craftsmen working in leather industry,
pottery, food processing industry, garments factory, gems
& jewellery units etc, 3) Knowledge through education
to achieve 100 per cent literacy. 4) Environment sensitive
and 5) Socio-Cultural development.
The existing slum rehabilitation schemes will be utilised
for implementation of the project. A master plan has been
created for Dharavi, substantial freedom is given to the developers
to decide the planning of each sector. They will have to configure
the use of the commercial, rehabilitation spaces etc. The
plan is in sync with the City Development Plan (CDP). Infrastructure
issues such as transportation, water supply and environment
are embedded in the plan.
The SRA had invited Expression of interest (EOI) on 30th May,
2007, wherein 101 bidders participated in the project. Out
of this 19 bidders were short listed and tender docu-ments
were issued. Bid submission date is extended upto 31st July,
2008. The project will take 7 to 8 years to complete from
the award date. So far, the project is stucked due to the
FSI issue and demand for more rehab space by the slum dwellers.The
government is in favour of increasing the floor space index
(FSI) from 4 to 4.5, but so far has failed to reach a consensus
in this regard. NGO’s and other slum developers groups
are demanding a tenement of 269 sq ft in place of 225 sq ft.
Impact on real estate
This project will release vast stretch of land for housing
and commercial purpose at a time, when the existing supply
is about to be dried up. This will free up huge chunk of real
estate space and will have a direct impact on the spiralling
real estate prices in Mumbai. This project will help the government
to set up delivery mechanism to ease out congestion in the
city. This project will set a new trend for high quality develop-ment
of international standard in Mumbai. DRP will also server
as a model solution for the growing slum problem across major
and emerging cities of India.
Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA)
Mukesh Mehta, Architect, MM Consultants, Mumbai
Period of 7 to 8 years
Rs 13,000 crore
19 bidders in fray, bid deadline extended to 31st July, 2008.
Developers not in favour of providing 269 sq ft rehab space
in place of 225 sq ft as envisaged in the original plan. Raising
of FSI of 4 to 4.5 is government predicament.
National Urban Housing
and Habitat Policy 2007
The policy seeks to enhance the spotlight on 'habitat' with
a 'Regional Planning approach' as well as further deepen the
role of Government as a 'facilitator' and 'regulator.' The
policy lays emphasis on earmarking of land for the EWS/LIG
groups in new housing projects and intends to provide affordable
housing to EWS and LIG of the population.
The housing stock in India stood at 50.95 million for 55.8
million urban households as per 2001 figures. According to
the Census 2001, 61.82 million persons or 23.1 per cent of
the urban population resides in slums. The quality of housing
stock in slums is extremely poor and is deficient in basic
services such as potable water, sanitation, sewerage, storm
water drainage and solid waste disposal.
The magnitude of housing shortage was estimated by a Technical
Group in the context of formulation of the 11th Five Year
Plan. The Technical Group estimated the housing shortage at
the end of the 10th Plan to be around 24.7 million for 67.4
million households. The Group further estimated that 99 per
cent of this shortage pertains to EWS & LIG sectors. During
the 11th Plan, the Group estimated that the total housing
requirement (including backlog) will be to the tune of 26.53
million units for 75.01 million households. Whereas more than
23 per cent of the urban population resides in slum (Census:
2001), a much higher proportion of the urban population of
metropolitan cities lives in slums; it is estimated that 55
per cent of the population of Mumbai lives in slums.
Eleventh plan projections
The Working Group on Urban Housing pertaining to the 11th
Plan made different assumptions on unit cost of construction
of houses in million plus cities and other urban areas for
estimating the investment required for overcoming the housing
shortage. The total estimated investment for meeting the housing
requirement upto 2012 was estimated to be of the order of
Rs 3,61,318.10 crore consisting of Rs 1,47,195 crore for mitigating
housing shortage at the beginning of 11th Plan and Rs 2,14,123.10
crore for new additions to be made during the 11th Plan period
(this includes construction of pucca houses & upgradation
of semi-pucca and kutcha housing units.
The National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) had provision
for adequate and satisfactory water supply, sanitation, housing,
solid waste management, primary and non-formal education.
The scheme provided additional central assistance to States
to supplement the resources of the State Government for provision
of basic infrastructure and services in slum areas. The Two
Million Housing Programme (TMHP) was launched with the objective
of 'housing for all' with particular emphasis on the needs
of economically weaker sections and low income group categories.
The Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) aimed at providing
subsidies for construction of housing and sanitation for urban
slum dwellers living below poverty line in different towns/cities
all over the country.
*Credits: Sandeep Ravidutt Sharma, Foundation of Infrastructure
Research Studies Training (FIRST)